Radiation Control Supplement
Chapter 6 – Training and Qualification
All individuals shall be trained in radiation safety prior to being permitted unescorted access to Controlled Areas and prior to receiving occupational dose [§835.901(a)]. This chapter establishes the requirements to ensure that training is commensurate with the hazards and controls and to maintain the radiation exposures As-Low-As-Reasonably-Achievable (ALARA). Training requirements in this chapter apply to personnel who enter a Controlled Area, handle or work with radioactive materials or operate radiation generating devices at Jefferson Lab, including employees of the Department of Energy (DOE), subcontractors, service companies, other federal agencies, state and local governments, and visitors.
612-01) Applicable portions of the DOE standardized core courses and training materials should be used as the basis for radiological training at Jefferson Lab. In addition, site-specific training materials will be used to instruct and qualify personnel for radiological work at the Jefferson Lab site.
612-02) Radiological worker training not specific to a given site or facility may be waived provided that:
a) This training has been received at another DOE site or facility within the past 2 years;
b) There is provision of proof-of-training in the form of a certification document containing the individual’s name, date of training, and specific topics covered; and
c) An appropriate official has certified the training of the individual.
Training reciprocity is also contingent on completion of any Jefferson Lab site-specific training modules and performance demonstration requirements, and completion of a closed book written or oral exam.
612-03) Pocket cards or other documentation that identifies current Jefferson Lab training status will be provided on request to assist in training reciprocity when traveling to other DOE facilities.
612-04) The site Radiation Control Department (RCD) Manager or a designee shall review and approve site-generated radiological training material.
612-05) Radiation safety training shall include the following topics, to the extent appropriate to each individual’s prior training, work assignments, and degree of exposure to potential radiological hazards [§835.901(c)]:
a) Risks of exposure to radiation and radioactive materials, including prenatal radiation exposure;
b) Basic radiological fundamentals and radiation protection concepts;
c) Physical design features, administrative controls, limits, policies, procedures, alarms, and other measures implemented at the facility to manage doses and maintain doses ALARA, including both routine and emergency actions;
d) Individual rights and responsibilities as related to implementation of the facility radiation protection program;
e) Individual responsibilities for implementing ALARA measures required by 10 CFR 835.101; and
f) Individual exposure reports that may be requested in accordance with 10 CFR 835.801.
It is the responsibility of the worker and his or her supervisor to ensure that they have scheduled appropriate radiation safety training prior to performing work that requires such training.
613-01) The knowledge of radiation safety possessed by radiological workers shall be verified by successful completion of a written examination and performance demonstrations [§835.901(b)]. Examinations should be used for General Employee Radiological Training (GERT), and shall be used for Radiological Worker I (RW I), Radiological Worker II (RW II), Assigned Radiation Monitor (ARM) and Radiological Control Technologist (RCT) qualification to demonstrate satisfactory completion of theoretical and classroom material. Examinations should be written or computer based training examinations, however alternatives may be used to accommodate special needs. The written examination process should ensure:
a) A minimum passing score for each training program be established
b) That true/false questions be avoided
c) Use of questions randomly selected from the question bank
d) If challenging a training course by exam, acknowledgment by signature that the student has completed a course of self study prior to taking the exam
e) Acknowledgment by signature that the student participated in a post-examination review
f) Remedial actions for failure to meet the minimum score
g) That questions be selected to test what the student is expected to remember months after the training rather than to test short-term memory of theoretical material.
613-02) The initial performance demonstration process should include/ensure:
a) Identification of specific performance elements that are related to the training objectives.
b) A minimum passing score for the performance demonstration to be established, and where appropriate, identification of specific performance elements that must be satisfactorily demonstrated.
c) An opportunity for the trainee to ask questions, practice, or otherwise prepare for the performance demonstration.
d) That given adequate preparation opportunity, the trainee should not be coached by the instructor during the performance demonstration.
e) A simulation or mock-up of a radiological area or areas adequate to allow demonstration of the required performance elements in a safe and controlled environment.
f) Remedial actions for failure to meet the minimum score.
613-03) Training shall address both normal and abnormal radiological situations. Retraining shall be provided when there is a significant change to radiation protection policies and procedures that affect general employees or radiological workers and shall be conducted at intervals not to exceed 24 months. Such training shall include successful completion of an examination [§835.901(e)].
613-04) GERT and Radiological Worker Training shall be valid for 24 months. Changes to the program shall be incorporated as they are identified and a decision made if retraining is needed prior to the 24-month period.
613-05) Training shall include changes in requirements and should include updates of relevant lessons learned from operations and maintenance experience and occurrence reporting, for the site and for other DOE facilities when applicable.
613-06) Verification of the effectiveness of radiological control training should be accomplished by observing or testing a subset of trained workers in the workplace.
613-07) Reading and comprehension skills in the English language are generally necessary for GERT and Radiation Worker I training. If the instructor is unable to verify that the student can comply with written and/or verbal instructions in the English language, the instructor shall not qualify the student. In some cases, visitor orientation and the use of trained escorts may, with the concurrence of the RCD Manager and the Jefferson Lab sponsor, provide a temporary alternative to Radiological Worker Training.
613-08) When an escort is used in lieu of training, the escort shall (1) have completed radiation safety training, examinations, and performance demonstrations required for entry to the area and performance of the work; and (2) ensure that all escorted individuals comply with the documented radiation protection program[§835.901(d)] .
613-09) Training records and course documentation shall meet the requirements of Article 725.
614-01) Qualification Standards define the requirements for demonstrating completion of training. Qualification Standards applicable to Jefferson Lab are found in the Jefferson Lab RCT Program Management Manual.
614-02) Qualification Standards used in the Jefferson Lab RCT Program Management Manual are based on applicable standards, including DOE-suggested training materials, and are supplemented to include Jefferson Lab site-specific elements.
614-03) Qualification Standards for the Radiological Control Technologist position include on-the-job training to provide hands-on experience directly applicable to the job and are specified in individual training plans for each technologist.
614-04) On-the-job trainees shall be under the control of qualified personnel. Before performing a job function without direct supervision, a trainee with partially completed qualifications shall have completed the qualifications for that task.
615-01) Instructors shall have the technical knowledge, experience and instructional skills required to fulfill their assigned duties. The decision for the suitability of a staff member to serve as an instructor rests with the RCD Manager.
615-02) Instructors-in-training shall be monitored by a qualified instructor.
615-03) Subject matter experts without instructor qualification may provide training in their area(s) of expertise.
Personnel who have unescorted access to a Controlled Area (CA) may encounter Radiologically Controlled Areas (RCAs) with radiological barriers, postings or radioactive materials. Consequently these personnel shall maintain, at a minimum, GERT.
621-01) GERT should include DOE-recommended training materials and additional site-specific information as appropriate.
621-02) GERT qualification also authorizes unescorted access to radioactive material areas, when these areas are not also posted as RCAs or radiological areas. Consequently, the training should include specific instructions and precautions for working around these materials, such as limitations on moving or handling.
621-03) Additional training beyond GERT is necessary for unescorted entry into Radiologically Controlled Areas or radiological areas [§835.901(b)(1)].
621-04) Information may be communicated by classroom lecture, videotape, or other applicable methods.
621-05) Requirements for qualification, testing and requalification in GERT are contained in Article 613.
622-01) Visitors who enter a Controlled Area must be escorted by an individual who is qualified with GERT or higher training.
622-02) Visitors who enter a Radiologically Controlled Area shall be escorted and receive a radiological safety orientation that includes the following topics:
a) Basic radiation protection concepts
b) Risk of low-level occupational radiation exposure, including cancer and genetic effects
c) Risk of prenatal radiation exposure
d) Radiological protection policies and procedures
e) Visitor responsibilities for radiation safety
f) Adherence to radiological posting and labeling
h) Information may be communicated by videotape, orally, and/or handout to personnel entering a site.
622-03) Records of the orientation shall be maintained. The Jefferson Lab Visitor Information Sheet, including visitors’ signatures, shall suffice as documentation of visitor orientation.
The knowledge of radiation safety possessed by radiological workers shall be verified by examination and performance demonstration prior to an unsupervised assignment. The level of training shall be commensurate with each worker’s assignment [§835.901(b)].
631-01) Radiological Worker I training shall be completed prior to entering Radiologically Controlled Areas without a qualified escort.
631-02) Radiological Worker I training shall be completed prior to performing unescorted assignments as a radiological worker.
631-03) Radiological Worker II training is required for entry into posted Contamination, High Contamination or Airborne Radioactivity Areas (when the posting is based on particulate airborne radioactivity), and for handling material known or likely to exceed the contamination limits in Appendix 2B.
631-04) Additional training may be required for special job functions with radiological consequences.
632-01) Training for radiological workers shall either precede assignment as a radiological worker or be concurrent with assignment as a radiological worker if the worker is accompanied by and under the direct supervision of a trained radiological worker [§835.901(b)].
632-02) Radiological Worker I training shall consist of applicable portions of the DOE standardized core course training materials, shall emphasize site-specific information, and course work shall include both classroom and applied training.
632-03) Jefferson Lab Radiological Worker I training shall include procedures specific to an individual’s job assignment and so encompass, at a minimum, the following performance demonstration elements:
b) Performance of monitoring (frisking) for personnel contamination,
c) Reading and interpreting applicable personnel dosimetry devices and instrumentation and taking appropriate actions based on the readings,
d) Use of Radiological Work Permit (RWP)
e) Anticipated response to abnormal situations.
632-04) Personnel who maintain qualifications as Radiological Worker I satisfy the requirements of GERT Training.
632-05) The RCM may authorize special or non-standardized radiological worker training for individuals with unusual or limited radiological duties or responsibilities. This training shall meet all applicable requirements in 10 CFR 835, and shall be documented.
Workers whose job assignments involve performing work in containments such as glove boxes, or entry into contaminated areas shall complete Radiological Worker II training.
633-01) Radiological Worker II training shall consist of applicable portions of the standardized core course training materials and shall emphasize site-specific information.
633-02) Jefferson Lab Radiological Worker II training shall include procedures specific to an individual’s job assignment and so encompass, at a minimum, the following site-specific practical factors:
a) The use of protective clothing
b) Performance of tasks in simulated Contaminated Areas
c) Anticipated response to simulated abnormal situations
d) Performance of monitoring for personnel contamination
e) Verification of instrument response and source check.
633-03) Respiratory protection training is not covered in Radiological Worker II training (see Article 531).
634 Specialized Radiological Worker Training
When necessary, specialized radiological worker training will be given by the RCD for non-routine operations or work in areas with changing radiological conditions. This training is in addition to Radiological Worker training and addresses planning, preparing, and performing jobs that have the potential for radiation doses in excess of the applicable values in Article 211, Tables 2-1A and 2-1B. Such jobs may involve special containment devices, respiratory training, the use of mockups, and ALARA considerations.
Training and retraining programs for RCTs shall be established and conducted at intervals not to exceed two years to familiarize technologists with the fundamentals of radiation protection and the proper techniques for maintaining doses ALARA.
641-01) Training and qualification of RCTs and their immediate supervisors shall address routine operations and also focus on recognizing and handling situations in both normal and changing radiological conditions [§835.103].
641-02) Newly qualified technologists and those still in training should be given the opportunity to work with qualified, experienced technologists to foster development.
641-03) Course content, material development requirements, standards and policies, and administration of RCT Training are fully defined and described in the Jefferson Lab RCT Program Management Manual.
641-04) RCT qualification consists of a program of classroom training, on-the-job training according to the Qualification Standards, passing written examinations, and performance demonstration evaluations.
641-05) RCT training shall use the applicable portions of the standardized DOE core course training materials as well as emphasizing Jefferson Lab site-specific information.
641-06) RCT candidates who have prerequisite knowledge, such as college credit, operational experience or related qualifications, may satisfy individual sections of the standardized core course training requirements by passing comprehensive challenge examinations. In addition, allowance may be made for previous training on generic radiation safety topics (i.e., those not specific to a site or facility), provided that documentation of the previous training is obtained.
641-07) Entry-level prerequisites shall be established to ensure that RCTs meet standards for physical condition and education. These standards should include the following:
a) High school education or equivalency
b) Fundamentals of mathematics, physics, chemistry and science
c) Systems and fundamentals of process, operations and maintenance
d) Reading and comprehension level sufficient to follow procedures, write permits, prepare survey maps, write reports and prepare shipping and transfer permits
e) Ability to work in a support role, including communicating verbal instructions to others
f) Physical requirements to handle Personal Protective Equipment, other equipment and assist others in work locations, commensurate with assignment.
641-08) RCTs are encouraged to pursue registration by the National Registry of Radiation Protection Technologists (NRRPT).
641-09) Registration by the NRRPT shall be considered equivalent to completion of the core training requirements.
641-010) The RCT training program shall include procedures specific to the site or facility where the technologist is assigned and shall be commensurate with the technologist’s assignment.
641-011) The training for RCTs shall either precede performance of tasks assigned to RCTs or be concurrent with such task assignments if the individual is accompanied by and under the direct supervision of a trained individual.
641-012) The required level of knowledge of radiation safety possessed by RCTs shall be verified by examination to include demonstration prior to any unsupervised work assignment.
642-01) Following initial qualification, the RCT should begin a cycle of continuing training required for requalification. This cycle is established and conducted at intervals not to exceed 24 months in order to ensure familiarity with the fundamentals of radiation protection and the proper procedures for maintaining exposures ALARA. Requirements for requalification shall include written examinations and may include performance demonstrations.
642-02) Continuing training should provide continued improvement in the knowledge and skills of the RCT.
642-03) Continuing training should include site-specific and DOE-wide changes in requirements, changes in procedures, updates of lessons learned from operating experience and industry events, familiarization with new equipment and other topics identified through job and task analysis or radiological performance (both positive and negative) in the field.
642-04) Personnel who maintain qualifications as RCTs satisfy the requirements of Radiological Worker I, Radiological Worker II and Assigned Radiation Monitor training.
643-01) RCT Supervisors shall maintain training in tasks they supervise or perform.
643-02) RCT Supervisors should have supervisory and leadership capabilities to direct the work of technologists; effectively interact with line supervisors, professional staff, and other managers; and be able to respond and direct others in emergency and abnormal situations [§835.103].
644-01) Radiological Control technical staff and management shall have:
a) A combination of education and experience commensurate with their job responsibilities [§835.103].
b) Continuing training based on an assessment of job responsibilities to maintain and enhance proficiency.
c) Continuing training to remain cognizant of changes to the facility, operating experience, procedures, regulations and quality assurance requirements.
644-02) Radiological support personnel shall have:
a) Training on Radiological Worker I, II, ARM or RCT training, and additional job-specific topics, as applicable.
b) Training appropriate to the tasks to be performed.
c) Continuing training to provide continued improvement in knowledge and skills.
d) Certification and involvement with professional industry organizations is encouraged.
ARMs are individuals not under the permanent employ of the RCD, but who have specific training provided by the RCD on the proper conduct and documentation of radiation surveys [§835.103]. ARMs are authorized to perform and document initial radiation surveys when an accelerator enclosure or experimental hall has the Safety System status changed from “beam permit” or “power permit” to “controlled access”. When performing these duties, the ARMs are working under the auspices of the RCD.
645-01) ARM duties and responsibilities shall be documented in technical directives and Standard Operating Procedures. These duties may be tailored to specific facility operational considerations (e.g. FEL operations).
645-02) ARM qualification shall include initial performance demonstrations and written examinations. ARM retraining shall include written exams.
645-03) Personnel who maintain full ARM qualifications satisfy the training requirements for Radiological Worker I training. Area-specific ARM qualification may or may not satisfy Radiological Worker training requirements. Consult the relevant course materials or the RCD for further information.
Radiographers performing work on the Jefferson Lab site are considered Radiological Workers. The RCD has evaluated training requirements of Radiographers and Radiographers’ Assistants, as defined in 10 CFR 34 and has established the following requirements.
646-01) Training required by 10 CFR 34 satisfies the training requirements for radiological workers in 10 CFR 835 for the conduct of radiographic operations at Jefferson Lab.
646-02) Radiographers needing unescorted access to normally posted Controlled Areas shall have GERT training, and shall meet other applicable training requirements for unescorted access to the accelerator site.
646-03) Radiographers needing unescorted access to RCAs shall have Radiological Worker I training, unless excepted by the RCM in writing.
Radiographers shall also follow the provisions of this manual and any specific instructions given to them by the RCD personnel. RWPs shall be used to authorize radiographic operations.
Other activities utilizing sealed sources for non-destructive testing (i.e. soil density gauges) shall be conducted as directed by the RCD. Training requirements for such operations shall be determined and documented as applicable to the type of operation. Written work authorizations shall be used to control such work, as appropriate.
Nothing in this manual shall be construed as limiting actions that may be necessary to protect health and safety. Provisions shall be in place to accommodate rapid site and radiological area access by on-site and off-site emergency workers, such as firefighters, medical personnel, and security personnel. These provisions should include training, escorts, and dosimetry as appropriate to the situation. The training should be special radiological worker training commensurate with the situations they are likely to encounter, and should emphasize that lifesaving has priority over radiological controls.
 For the purposes of this manual a “general employee” is considered any individual who is either a DOE or DOE contractor employee; an employee of a subcontractor to a DOE contractor; or an individual who performs work for or in conjunction with DOE or utilizes DOE facilities