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All Staff Memos

Date: April 24, 2002
To: Distribution
From: Larry Cardman and Andrew Hutton for the Nuclear Physics
Experiment Scheduling Committee
Subject: Accelerator Schedule: Through June 2003


Attached is the accelerator operations schedule through June 2003. Due to budget constraints, the accelerator will operate for approximately 30 weeks during the next fiscal year.

The Jefferson Lab Nuclear Physics Experiment Scheduling Committee developed the schedule. Committee members are: Larry Cardman and Andrew Hutton (Co-Chairmen), Hari Areti, Rolf Ent, Leigh Harwood, Bernhard Mecking, Kees de Jager, Mike Seeley, Dennis Skopik, Steve Suhring, Will Oren, and Karen White. Franz Gross provided advice. As has been the norm, many meetings of this committee were necessary to resolve conflicting requirements and to ensure that sufficient resources would be available at the laboratory to properly stage and carry out each of the experiments. The schedule was derived by looking at the requests for major installation work in the experimental halls, evaluating the number and kinds of people needed, and then scheduling to minimize overlap. The schedule request forms were useful in identifying the detailed requirements of each experiment. Information on other laboratory engineering priorities was included to ensure that the required preparatory work could be completed in time. This provided a rough overview of when each hall would be down.

Each hall leader took the requests for running time submitted by the experiment spokespersons and prioritized them based on the PAC recommendations and other considerations as outlined in the scheduling committee charter. Scheduled time for Hall B was calculated using an estimated overall efficiency of simultaneous hall and accelerator operation of 50%. Even though the actual availability of Hall B was higher; most running in Hall B involves fractions of very long run groups; therefore cutting the scheduling as tight as possible has no long term benefit, and we take advantage of higher running efficiency (when achieved) to complete a larger fraction of a run group’s program. Scheduled time for Hall A and Hall C was calculated using an estimated overall efficiency of 60%, consistent with recent experience. In a number of cases the scheduled beamtime has been adjusted to reflect significant changes in facility capabilities since the time of PAC approval of the experiment; the most obvious of these is the availability of high polarization beams with significantly higher current than was the case a few years ago. The final schedule was then reached by a series of compromises in running order within each experiment and between halls to work around incompatibilities.

The standard section at the end of this memo on "the meaning of priority on the accelerator schedule" is included for reference; there were no changes in the policy this cycle. All users with running experiments should read it carefully.

The schedule attached represents our best effort to optimize the physics output of the laboratory consistent with our resource constraints and the technical evolution of the accelerator and the experimental equipment. In the material that follows, we outline the technical considerations that influenced the scheduling, and outline the planned program.


We ran the majority of the last year at 5.7 GeV as a compromise between the high trip rates associated with pushing the accelerator energy higher and the physics users desire for higher energy. The RF Trip rates still makes running at energies above 5.7 GeV problematic for routine operations, therefore the maximum energy planned for FY02 is 5.7 GeV.

The polarized injector, with two fully operational, horizontally mounted polarized guns (one for production beam and one for a spare), continues to perform well. All beam operations, polarized or unpolarized, are conducted with high polarization cathodes. When polarized beam is not required, shorter wavelength lasers are used to take advantage of the higher quantum efficiency at these wavelengths. During the past year, over 280,000 microAmp-hours were delivered from the polarized guns with polarization between 75% and 80%. Typical bleedthrough from high current Halls A and C to Hall B is less than 3%. However, during the latest running, at high currents in Hall A, Hall B discovered that they needed to close their slit almost completely to avoid polarization degradation. In this condition, small beam movements on the slit caused a large 60Hz modulation of the Hall B current. An extensive search and clean-up of the Injector during the March down was initiated to find and eliminate all sources of 60 Hz noise that might affect the beam. In parallel, a fast feedback system is being installed to eliminate any residual beam motion. It is expected that this work will make Hall B operations more stable.

In order to support the upcoming Physics program, we developed a new Ti-sapphire laser for the G0 experiment. This low average power laser provided the required substantially lower laser pulse rate (31 MHz versus 499 MHz) while maintaining the same overall charge as the 499MHz laser. Initial tests of this laser were disappointing as only 11 microAmps of beam at 31MHz could be obtained (40 microamps are required). A commercial laser that meets the specifications has been identified and is being procured. In addition, a diode laser has been modified to obtain the 31 MHz pulse rate and this will be used to try and trigger the Ti-sapphire laser. We will be carrying out a series of beam studies for the G0 experiment and still expect to be able to deliver the correct beam characteristics on time.

We have decreased the number of 11 shift maintenance and restore periods in this run schedule but will continue to reserve a 12 hour period every Tuesday (7am – 7pm) in order to recover RF cavities, test the G0 laser and perform other limited activities deemed critical to successful accelerator operations.

Hall A

The waterfall target system was installed during the September/October 2001 shutdown in order to run E00-102 (Saha, Bertozzi, Weinstein, Fissum), testing the limits of the single-particle model in 16O(e,e'p). During the December 2001/January 2002 shutdown, the waterfall target system was replaced by the cryogenic target system. A new photon calorimeter and associated charged particle sweep magnet was also installed as well as the Focal Plane Polarimeter (FPP). This equipment was required by experiment E99-114 (Hyde-Wright, Nathan, Wojsekhowski) which performed measurements of exclusive Compton scattering on the proton. The RICH counter was installed in March in order to complete experiment E98-108 (Baker, Chang, Frullani, Iodice, Markowitz). E98-108 measured electroproduction of Kaons up to Q2 = 3 (GeV/c)2.

The cryogenic target system was modified during the March/April 2002 shutdown in preparation of experiments E01-001 and E01-020, which are to be performed during May/June. Experiment E01-001 (Arrington, Segel) will perform a new measurement of Ge/Gm for the proton while E01-020 (Boeglin, Jones, Klein, Mitchell, Ulmer, Voutier) will perform (e,e’p) studies of the deuteron at high Q2. The septum magnets are expected to be ready for installation during the July/August shutdown. The cryogenic target system will be replaced by the polarized 3He target in preparation of experiment E97-110 (Garibaldi, Chen, Cates). Experiment E97-110 is the low-Q2 (forward angle) extension of E94-010, which measured the Q2 evolution of the GDH sum rule. After completing E97-110 in mid-October, the polarized 3He target will be replaced by the waterfall target system in preparation of experiment E94-107 (Frullani, Garibaldi, LeRose, Markowitz, Saito). E94-107 will perform a high resolution study of 1p-shell hypernuclear spectroscopy.

The tentative experimental schedule for the first half of 2003 consist of two experiments: E99-115 and E00-114. Experiment E99-115 (Kumar, Lhuillier) is directed at constraining the nucleon strangeness radius by measuring parity violating electron scattering from the proton. Experiment E00-114 (Armstrong, Michaels) will perform measurements of parity violation from 4He at low Q2.

Hall B

Since the last schedule release, Hall B has completed the e1-6 run (the first run with 5.7 GeV electrons on a hydrogen target) to study DVCS and deep meson production processes above the resonance region. This was followed by the e6 run (electron scattering off deuterium) to determine inclusive structure functions of the neutron by tagging the scattering process via the detection of the spectator proton.

After the maintenance period in March/April 2002, e2b (polarized electrons off helium and other nuclear targets) will run to complete the data taking for the e2 run group. This will be followed by the g7 run (search for modifications of the vector meson mass spectrum in a nuclear medium via the observation of the mass spectrum of electron-positron pairs) and by the low-energy part of the e1 run.

The tentative part of the schedule sees more e1 running at energies of 3.0 and 5.5 GeV with the goal of completing the e1 program in the first half of 2003.

Hall C

Since the last schedule was released, Hall C has completed major installation experiment E93-026 (Day/Warren/Zeier), a measurement of the neutron electric form factor utilizing polarized beam and target, and E01-006 (Rondon/Jones), a measurement of Nucleon Spin Structure Functions in the Resonance Region. In parallel, the entire G0 scintillation detector assembly was installed in Hall C.

Presently, a long dedicated installation period for the G0 experiment has started. Work on the installation and commissioning of the G0 magnet and cryogenic target is well underway. The initial commissioning of the G0 system will occur late August 2002. The G0 engineering run will start in October 2002.

The tentative schedule for the first half of 2003 consists of a changeover from the G0 running to a series of three base equipment experiments using the HMS and SOS. E00-002 (Keppel/Niculescu) will measure the F2 structure function of the nucleon in an unmeasured region at low momentum transfer. E01-002 (Frolov/Koubarovski/Price/Stoler) will extend previous Hall C measurements of Baryon Resonance Electroproduction to the highest momentum transfer practically accessible at a 6 GeV facility. E01-004 (Blok/Huber/Mack) will extend the pion form factor data to higher momentum transfer.

Information about the Schedule

The accompanying revised schedule is fixed through December 2002, and tentative for the following six months. Because of the complex couplings between the hall operations during polarized beam running, all halls must continue to run in "calendar-driven" mode. The firm schedule for the second half of 2003 (and the tentative schedule for the first half of 2004) will be released following the meetings of the next cycle of the scheduling committee.

Footnotes to the Schedule

We summarize here the detailed footnotes to the schedule. They appear in the rightmost column of the schedule listing, and are listed at the earliest date in the schedule when they are applicable; many extend for a considerable time after they first appear. The first five footnotes apply to the entire schedule. All of the footnotes are repeated here for clarity and information.

  1. When two or three halls are scheduled, the relative priority listed in the schedule (in the order listed from left to right) is the relative priority of the halls. For example, A/B/C means that Hall A is the highest priority, Hall B has second priority, and Hall C has the lowest priority. If one of the halls has an asterisk, it means that its priority is conditional, and the conditions are given in appropriate footnotes at the beginning of the running of the affected experiment. If the conditions are not met, then the remaining two halls will have priority in the order listed.
  2. Energies listed in the schedule for the halls receiving polarized beam are the actual, delivered energies; they include the energy of the injector.
  3. In the "Accelerator" column, a "low" under Pol(arization) indicates planned use of either a bulk or a thin (but unstrained) GaAs cathode, implying that medium (~40%) polarization can be expected. A "high" under Pol(arization) indicates planned use of a strained GaAs cathode, implying high (~75%) polarization can be anticipated.
  4. When polarized beam is delivered to all three halls, it is not, in general, possible to provide pure longitudinal polarization to all users. We have optimized the beam energies to provide the highest longitudinal polarization (generally over 90%) to all halls during extended periods of scheduled two- and three-hall operation with polarization. For two-hall operation we have occasionally used less than ideal linac energy settings when one or more of the halls has a scheduled pass change in order to optimize polarization delivery over the entire run. This avoids the loss of beamtime associated with a linac energy change, and it avoids energy shifts in the hall that has no interest in changing energy at the time of the transition in the other hall. See the note in the "polarization" subsection of the text on the meaning of priority in the schedule; the note is attached below.
  5. In all cases, the orientation of the polarization at the injector will be optimized by setting the Wien angle to a value that minimizes the differences between the hall polarizations (by minimizing the dispersion) so long as this scheme does not result in a reduction of the "sum of squares" figure of merit by more than 2% compared to the optimum figure of merit as determined by summing the squares of the polarization provided to all halls scheduled to receive polarized beam. If minimizing the dispersion results in a loss of more than 2% relative to the optimum figure of merit, we will revert to our earlier algorithm of setting the Wien filter to maximize the overall figure of merit. In all cases involving polarized beam delivery the setting of the Wien Filter shall be fixed throughout the running period unless all parties scheduled to receive polarized beam agree to a different setting.
  6. When polarized beam is provided at a new energy, as much time as necessary during the first shift of polarized beam operation will be used to verify polarization in the halls. This can be done by direct polarimetry in the hall(s) and/or by taking data on a reaction that is adequately sensitive to the beam polarization. By the end of the first shift of production running with polarized beam, the run coordinator(s) for any experiment(s) receiving polarized beam must report to the Program Deputy that they have measured the beam polarization and determined it to be acceptable. Otherwise, a measurement of the beam polarization will be scheduled immediately. When the polarized beam energy is being changed in only one hall (e.g. a "pass change") then that hall should measure beam polarization by the end of the first shift of production running. Further, if the change in settings of the Wien filter are substantial, all three halls should measure and report beam polarization by the end of the first shift of production running with the new setup.
  7. The Hall A septa installation is now scheduled to begin on July 8, 2002. If the septa construction project experiences further delays, the run schedule for Hall A beginning in September, 2002 will need to be modified.
  8. G0 will be moved out of the beamline and Hall C re-configured for a series of small-scale experiments.

The Meaning of Priority on the Accelerator Schedule

Generally, the assignment of priority to a hall means that the identified hall will have the primary voice in decisions on beam quality and/or changes in operating conditions. We will do our best to deliver the beam conditions identified in the schedule for the priority hall. It will not, however, mean that the priority hall can demand changes in beam energy that would affect planned running in the other halls without the consent of the other halls. Of course, final authority for decisions about unplanned changes in machine operation will rest with the laboratory management.

The operation of more than one hall at Jefferson Lab substantively complicates the interaction between the experimenters and the accelerator operations group. It is in the interests of the entire physics community that the laboratory be as productive as possible. Therefore, we require that the run coordinators for all operating halls do their best to respond flexibly to the needs of experiments running in other halls. The run coordinators for all experiments either receiving beam or scheduled to receive beam that day should meet with the Program Deputy at 7:45 AM in the MCC on weekdays, 8:30 AM on weekends.

To provide some guidance and order to the process of resolving the differing requirements of the running halls, we have assigned a "priority hall" for each day beam delivery has been scheduled. We outline here the meaning of priority and its effect on accelerator operations.

The priority hall has the right to:

When the priority hall has requested a re-tune, if the re-tune degrades a previously acceptable beam for one of the other, lower priority running halls, then the re-tune shall continue until the beam is acceptable to both the priority hall and the other running halls that had acceptable beam at the time the re-tune began.

Non-priority halls can:

The ability of non-priority halls to request retunes and accesses shall be limited by a sum rule - the total time lost to the priority hall due to such requests shall not exceed 2.5 hours in any 24-hour period. (To facilitate more extended tuning associated with complex beam delivery, with the agreement of the run coordinators for all operating halls, the sum rule may be applied over a period as long as three days, so long as the average impact is less than 2.5 hours/day.) In the event that two non-priority halls are running, the 2.5 hours shall be split evenly between them in the absence of mutual agreement on a different split.

During operations in which a single, 1500 MHz laser is being used to drive the electron source for all 3 halls, when a non-priority hall needs changes to the accelerator state (re-tuning, access, etc.), then all halls currently receiving beam need to agree on the timing of the change, and the shift leader for the priority hall should contact the crew chief to make the formal request. (The upgrades to the PSS and MPS system, together with the three-laser drive, eliminate the need for this constraint during normal operations using the polarized electron source. However, it may be necessary to reinstate it on a temporary basis in situation such as a laser failure in which we are forced to operate the polarized source in a non-standard manner.)

All Halls:

Initial Tune-up of New Beams:


Finally, any change in the accelerator schedule that has implications for running beyond one week and/or is not agreed to by the run coordinators for all affected experiments and the accelerator program deputy must be discussed and confirmed at meetings to be held (as required) each Tuesday and Friday afternoon at 4:00 in the office of the AD for Physics.


The four-week maintenance cycle that was started last year has proven to be a considerable improvement. In the present running cycle we will continue to extend the time between full (12 shift) maintenance periods even further – to roughly once per month. During the 4-week cycle periods the maintenance/development cycle remains the same, but the weekly, non-invasive maintenance periods will be extended from 4 to 12 hours every Tuesday (7am - 7pm). This cycle offers improved opportunity for accelerator and injector related maintenance, and should result in even higher availability for physics. The details are provided here for reference.

4-week Maintenance/Development Cycle

The 4-week cycle of the schedule includes maintenance/development periods of 11 shifts every four weeks. As can be seen below, the 11-shift cycles have the same structure as the maintenance/development periods of the standard 3-week cycle. However, the weekly, non-invasive maintenance periods will be extended from 4 to 12 hours every Tuesday (7am - 7pm). This cycle offers improved opportunity for accelerator and injector related maintenance, and should result in even higher availability for physics. The details are provided here for reference.

Machine Maintenance/Development Schedule – 4 Week Cycle

Weeks with long maintenance periods

Owl Physics Injector Hot Checkout by Ops (no beam) Restore Accelerator

(Halls locked)
Start Physics
06:00 Rad Survey


Software priority 12:00 - 20:00

Injector check-out 18:00-20:00

Lock-up when work complete
06:00 Open

Maintenance/Final Repairs
Day MD
(Halls Locked)

Restore Halls
(Halls locked)

MD on Hall lines
12:00 Diagnosis 12:00 Restore Injector


23:00 Lock Halls
Swing Injector Restore Halls
(Halls locked)
Legend: Physics Running; Halls Locked for Accel. Use

Weeks with no long maintenance period

Owl Physics





Day Physics RF Recovery, Injector work, software tests, MD

20:00 Start Physics
Physics Physics Physics
Swing Physics 20:00 Physics Physics Physics Physics


  1. A major block of time for Maintenance and Machine Development will be scheduled for 11 shifts roughly every 4 weeks.
  2. The first four hours will be spent doing MD that may require beam to the halls. At least one hall will be available for such activities, and more halls will be made available by prior agreement as necessitated by the program of activities planned.
  3. The halls will be open for experimental equipment maintenance from 12:00 on Monday through 23:00 on Wednesday.
  4. A designated period of time is provided for pre-maintenance diagnosis with beam (AES Group, Beam Physics & Instrumentation, and others) so that the maintenance time can be utilized effectively.
  5. Monday Swing and Tuesday Owl will be assigned to the Injector for the foreseeable future.
  6. There are two shifts for maintenance on Tuesday. It is anticipated that mechanical installations will start early and be finished around 6 PM. To avoid interference, the Software Group will have priority from 12:00 – 20:00, and the AES Group will have priority before 12:00 and after 20:00. Injector checkout should occur from 18:00 – 20:00.
  7. The Wednesday Owl, "Hot Checkout by Ops," means that:
    1. System Owners need to write Hot Checkout procedures to be used by Ops.
    2. System Owners will be required to be physically present during Hot Checkout until procedures are provided to Ops.
    3. These procedures will be the basis for troubleshooting and repair documentation.
    4. Systems found to be defective will usually be fixed on the Wednesday Day Shift although major problems may have to be addressed immediately.
  8. Wednesday morning is available for completing installations and for final repair of systems found to be defective during Hot Checkout.
  9. The accelerator will be restored starting 12:00 on Wednesday, continuing through Thursday Owl. Some additional Machine Development may occur during these shifts.
  10. Restoration of beam to the halls will be done on Thursday Day and Swing shifts. This will include Machine Development on the hall beamlines, which would benefit from more dedicated time.
  11. On the weeks when no major maintenance is scheduled, 12 hours will be assigned beginning on Tuesday morning. This will be used for recovering RF cavities to maintain a high active cavity inventory, and for tests of Beam Applications that would profit from frequent, short tests.


For holidays shown on the schedule (such as Thanksgiving) the beam will be shut down at ~noon on the last day shown as beam delivery (e.g. Wednesday noon before the Thursday Thanksgiving holiday). Beam operations for physics will be resumed at 8 AM on the first day after the holiday shown as beam operations, with the first shift devoted to beam restoration (i.e. it will be treated as initial tune-up of a new beam from the point of view of operations).

Energy Constraints on Multiple Hall Operations

The standard constraints for the different energies in the three halls during multiple hall operation are reiterated here for your information. The RF separators are able to extract one beam after each pass or, alternatively, to deliver beam to all three halls after five passes.

Therefore, it is always the case that:

  1. All three beams can have the same energy only on the fifth pass.
  2. No two halls can have the same energy, except on the fifth pass.
  3. Unusual beam energies in one hall will sometimes preclude multiple beam operation and impose shutdowns on the other halls, unless one or more of the other halls can also use a commensurate, unusual energy.

Polarization Constraints on Multiple-Hall Operations

There are only two beam energies (2.115 and 4.230 GeV) at which purely longitudinal spin can be delivered simultaneously to all three halls when the halls have the same energy. There are, however, many combinations of passes and linac energies at which it is possible to deliver beams with precisely longitudinal polarization to two halls simultaneously, and many combinations at which it is possible to deliver nearly longitudinal polarization to three halls. A technical note covering all combinations of 2-hall polarized beam running is available (TN 97-021). Tables of ideal energies for two-hall operation and optimal energies for three-hall operation are available at the url:

You can also determine the dependence of the polarization in all three halls on the Wien filter angle for the actual settings of the accelerator. Experimenters scheduled for periods involving multiple-hall polarized beam delivery should consider the possible impact of a transverse polarization component on their measurements, and provide the laboratory with a maximum allowable transverse component if appropriate. Because of the limitations on beam energies associated with the different combinations of linac settings and numbers of passes delivered to the different halls, we have a great deal less flexibility for changing energies in the different halls during polarized beam running. This is because there are many instances where the nominal linac energy and number of recirculations for the running halls provide reasonable polarization, but where changing the number of recirculations for one of the running halls results in nearly transverse polarization.

In an effort to optimize polarized beam running, we schedule many weeks of operation at "unusual" energies that are consistent with good polarization in multiple halls. The details vary from run period to run period and hall by hall. In the worst case, the effective polarization delivered to a hall is typically reduced to no less than ~90% of the nominal maximum available from the cathode. This reduction is due to the angle at which the polarization vector will be set relative to the beam direction in the hall in a compromise that will optimize delivery to all halls. For two-hall operation we can optimize the figure of merit for both running experiments by simply setting the Wien filter to a value that results in identical longitudinal polarization components for the two halls. For three-hall operation we have previously used an algorithm that set the Wien filter to a value that maximized the overall figure of merit (the sum of the squares of the polarization provided to all halls scheduled to receive polarized beam). It has been noted that this sometimes results in situations where the delivered polarization is significantly different for the three halls. To "equalize the pain" for three-hall operation, we are adopting a refinement to this algorithm. The Wien angle for three-hall operation will now be set to minimize the differences between the hall polarizations (by minimizing the dispersion) so long as this scheme does not result in a reduction of the "sum of squares" figure of merit by more than 2% compared to the optimum figure of merit. In all cases involving polarized beam delivery the setting of the Wien Filter shall be fixed throughout the running period unless all parties scheduled to receive polarized beam agree to a different setting.