6120 Appendix T1
Portable Hand Tool Safe Practices
Portable hand tools expose workers to hazard issues including electrical shock, pinch points, sharp edges, and repetitive motion. In most cases basic personal protection equipment (PPE) is required; and in all cases additional vigilance by operators and observers.
There are three categories of portable hand tools used at Jefferson Lab:
· Cutting Tools (Saws)
· Torsion Tools (Wrenches)
· Impact Tools (Hammers)
· Screwdrivers – Flat or Philips Head
This appendix provides the minimum requirements when using portable hand tools. See the area supervisor and the tool owner for additional specific requirements for the material and/or tool used.
The process steps for this procedure are performed in coordination with ES&H Manual Chapter 6120 Portable Hand Tool Safety.
NOTE: Management authority may be delegated at the discretion of the responsible manager.
3.1 Portable Hand Tool Owner and/or Operator
· Ask your supervisor/Subcontracting Officer’s Technical Representative (SOTR) for clarification or training on any tool you are unfamiliar with, or as required.
· Inspect and wear appropriate PPE in accordance with ES&H Manual Chapter 6620 Personal Protective Equipment.
· Use tools in accordance with Jefferson Lab’s and manufacturer’s requirements. If these are in conflict ask your supervisor/ SOTR/Sponsor for clarification.
· Ensure appropriate tools are available for the work assigned.
· Ensure workers are trained and authorized to use portable hand tools. Coordinate training as necessary (contact Industrial Safety for assistance).
· Ensure that workers inspect, maintain, store, and dispose of tools in accordance with department procedures.
3.3 Industrial Safety
· Coordinate training for portable hand tools when requested.
4.0 Process Steps
Unless otherwise noted process steps are performed by authorized Portable Hand Tool Owners and/or Operators.
Jefferson Lab’s minimal requirements for all portable hand tools (manual or powered) are:
· Inspection prior to each use;
· Maintenance in accordance with manufacturer’s recommendations;
· Storage in a secure location; and
· Disposal in a safe, environmentally-friendly manner.
Loose clothing, jewelry, ties, or any dangling objects, including long hair may catch in rotating parts or accessories. This attire is never authorized in or around these tools.
Generally some type of basic PPE is required. See ES&H Manual Chapter 6620 Personal Protective Equipment to determine and obtain the appropriate items.
Jefferson Lab considers manually powered tools to be those that are powered by manual force and held in the hand. Virtually every type of tool can be a hand tool and many have been adapted for use with automated power. When this is the case (e.g., a hammer or saw) both safety requirements are to be followed.
Minimum safety requirements for all manually powered tools:
· Secure footing.
· Adequate clearance for fingers and hands.
· Do not use a tool as a hammer (unless it is one).
· Use cut-resistant gloves and safety glasses.
· The normal direction of force is away from the body; however, use the tool in accordance with manufacturer’s instructions (i.e., cable stripping tools).
· Use guide-blocks to guide materials across a cutting surface.
· Replace guards if they are missing or damaged.
· Use retractable-blades whenever possible. If not possible use a frame or handle (except for single and double edge razor blades.).
o Correctly place blades in the frame or handle. This includes selecting the proper blade for the cutting task, installing the blade with the teeth pointing forward, and properly adjusting the tension of the blade.
· Use instead of an adjustable wrench or an open-ended wrench as they are safer and protect the bolt head or nut.
· Use 6-point sockets when available.
· Use mainly for nuts and bolts that do not fit a socket wrench.
· Always apply pressure to the fixed-jaw side of the wrench and, whenever possible, pull the wrench toward the body.
· Jaws are sharp and kept clean to prevent slipping.
· Do not use on nuts or bolts.
· Do not use a pipe wrench hammer as a hammer unless it is specifically designed for such use.
· Clean bolt or nut thread before each use.
· Ensure accurate calibration. These require an annual documented calibration test in accordance with Jefferson Lab’s Measurement and Test Equipment Control and Calibration Procedure.
· Do not exceed its scale range.
· Wear safety glasses or face shield.
· Head is fitted securely to the handle.
· Handle is smooth, free of oil, and shaped to fit the hand.
· Use a ball-peen or maul hammer to strike another tool.
· Heads are to be dressed when they start to mushroom. (If qualified to dress, do so, otherwise take mushroomed hammers to the Machine Shop.)
· Wear a face shield.
· Do not use a sledge hammer with a split handle or a chipped head. (See ESH& Manual Chapter 6120 Appendix T2 Storage, Inspection, Maintenance, and Disposal of Portable Hand Tools.
Pliers are used for cutting or bending material such as wire. Pliers are designed to allow the force of the hand’s grip to be amplified.
· Jaws are to meet each other at one pivot angle without play.
· Handles have protective coating or patterned grip.
· Use safety glasses with side shields.
· Have insulated grips. Grips are to be replaced as needed.
· Serrated jaw should be sharp enough to hold wires securely.
· Keep tips clean and square-edged. It is acceptable to reshape minor wear with a file.
· Size the tip to fit snugly in the screw.
· Dispose of any screwdriver with a broken or loose handle, bent blade, or dull or twisted tip.
· Always make a pilot hole for a screw.
· Do not carry screwdrivers in your pockets.
· Do not use as a chisel, punch, wedge, pinch, or pry bar.
· Never use any screwdriver for electrical work unless it is insulated. Be alert for small cracks in the insulation.
· Fasten securely to a sturdy, immobile work bench or a similar base.
· When sawing material held in a vise, make the cut as close to the jaws as possible.
· If clamping long pieces, support the free end of the piece adequately.
· Over tightening a clamp can break the clamp or damage the product.
· If there is a swivel, it must turn freely.
· Clamps should be stored on a rack and not in a drawer
Jefferson Lab considers portable power driven tools to be those that are powered by an automated force (e.g., electricity or air) and held in the hand. Many hand tools have been adapted for use with automated power. When this is the case (e.g., a hammer or saw) both safety requirements are to be followed.
Minimum safety requirements for all portable power driven tools:
· Manufacture’s safety requirements are followed applicable to the tool being used and the nature of the work being performed.
· Hands and clothing are kept away from the working end of the tool.
· Speed regulator or governor is maintained to avoid wheel runaway.
· The power source is “off” or unplugged (so the tool cannot inadvertently become powered up) when not in use and before making adjustments.
· Workers and observers are constantly aware of the location of cords, hoses and attachments.
· Removable parts are maintained in good condition and securely attached before use.
NOTE: Since ground conductors are not needed for the device to operate, there may be an undetected open ground in an appliance, its cord, or in a branch circuit. For this reason, it is important to test grounded appliances and circuits periodically for ground continuity. Your supervisor or Jefferson Lab’s Electrical Safety Engineer can arrange for this test.
Electric shock is the chief hazard from electrically-powered tools. For that reason:
· Do not use electric tools in damp or wet areas or in metal tanks.
· Only use electric tools that are in good repair.
· A ground-fault circuit-interrupter (GFCI) is required.
· GFCIs must be used where civil construction activities occur.
Typically air-powered tools are powered by an electric or gas powered air compressor or explosive cartridge. Attachments include drills, saws, belt sanders, hammers, and chainsaws. Safety requirements are identical to those of their electric or manual counterparts with the addition of:
· Use of hearing protection.
· Inspection and testing of the tool, air hose, and coupling before each use.
· Never exceed the manufacturer’s listed air pressure for the tool.
· Wear eye protection meeting ANSI Z87.1 standards when operating a circular saw. This eyewear is available from the stockroom.
· Use guards as the manufacturer intended. Check the guard frequently to be sure that it operates freely and encloses the teeth, including the unused portion of the blade when cutting.
· Do not use a circular saw that is too heavy to be easily controlled.
· Be sure that the switch that turns the tool on returns to the off position after release.
· Use sharp blades.
· Use the correct blade for the application, and observe rotation marks on the blade during installation.
· Ensure the blade is compatible for the tool. Ensure that:
o It is the proper size
o It has the proper shaped arbor hole.
o The speed marked on the blade is at least as high as the “no-load speed” (revolutions per minute) on the saw’s nameplate.
· The work piece must be securely supported.
· For maximum control, use either both hands or a guide block to properly and safely guide the saw.
4.2.4 Abrasive Wheels, Buffers, and Scratch Brushes (in addition to 4.2 Portable Power Tools requirements listed above and if electric then 4.2.1 Electric Power Tools, or if air powered the 4.2.2 Air-Powered Tools)
· Always wear safety glasses.
· Guards are to be in place and cover the moving part as completely as possible. Guards should be adjustable so operators can make adjustment instead of removing the guard. Guards for wheels must not be removed.
· Keep the abrasive wheel away from water and oil. These may affect its balance.
· Do not strike the sides of a wheel against other objects or drop the wheel.
· Sound-test (ring-test) wheels before mounting. Discard defective wheels immediately.
· Check the wheel rating. Ensure that maximum machine rotation (RPM) does not exceed the rating of the wheel.
· When installing the wheel, make sure both sides have blotter paper.
· Do not to expose the tool to liquids, or use in damp, wet locations.
· When adjusting the tracking of the belt, be certain you have the sander supported and positioned to avoid accidental contact with yourself or an adjacent object.
· The work area should be at least 3ft – 4ft larger than the length of stock being sanded.
· Use jigs, clamps, or fixtures to hold your work piece whenever possible.
· Use only with high-strength, bonded, undamaged wheels.
· Use the proper combination of wheel and guard.
· Never over reach.
· Maintain balance of the machine.
· Do not allow the grinding wheel to bend, pinch, or twist in the cut.
· Angle grinders are primarily used with reinforced abrasive discs or wire cup brushes for the removal of metal or masonry.
· Tuck point grinders (a variation of straight grinders) are equipped with reinforced abrasive discs and the appropriate guard.
· Check the wheel rating. Ensure that maximum machine rotation (RPM) does not exceed the rating of the wheel.
· Do not grind near combustibles. Hot fragments may be thrown off the material causing a fire hazard job. (See ES&H Manual Chapter 6900 Appendix T1 Fire Protection: Hot Work Permit.)
The hazards encountered in the use of these tools are similar to those encountered with firearms. For this reason Jefferson Lab has determined that use of powder actuated fastening tools carries an unmitigated Risk Code 3. Therefore, an Operational Safety Procedure (OSP) is written, read, and signed by operators prior to use. (See OSHA 1919.243(d) and the National Safety Council Data Sheet 236, Powder Actuated Hand Tools).
· Use ES&H Manual Chapter 3310 Operational Safety Procedure Program to develop an OSP to document the hazard issues and mitigation requirements associated with powder actuating fastening tools.
· The following additional information is required to be addressed prior to review and approval of the document:
Operators must be trained by a representative of the tool manufacturer, or other authorized representative (contact Industrial Safety).
Cartridge Purchase and Storage
Define the purchasing, storing, and other control options for the tool’s cartridges.
(Cartridges for these types of tools are considered chemicals. Therefore they are:
· Complete the process steps as outlined within ES&H Manual Chapter 3310 Appendix T1 Operational Safety Procedure (OSP) and Temporary OSP Procedure for validation, approval, recordkeeping and implementation.
5.0 Revision Summary
Revision 1.2 – 01/16/13 – Clarified Process Steps for Manually Powered Tools and Portable Power Tools.
Revision 1.1 – 11/30/12 – Clarified training requirement for Powder Actuated Fastening Tool and process for purchasing and storing of cartridges.
Revision 1 – 07/19/10 – Updated to reflect current laboratory operations.
REVIEW REQUIRED DATE
 : Single and double edge razor blades are not secured in an approved holding device. Check with your supervisor if you have questions concerning the adequacy of this type of tool.