ES&H Manual



6310 Protection from Ionizing Radiation



1.0             Purpose


Ionizing radiation and a variety of radioactive materials are an integral part of the research activities at Jefferson Lab. Ionizing radiation is generated by interactions of the accelerated electron beam with beam line components (e.g.: magnets, flanges, and beam dumps) and experimental equipment such as targets and detectors. These interactions give rise to two sources of potential ionizing radiation exposure:


·         Prompt Radiation: emitted in the above interactions only when an accelerator is running and stops when the accelerator is turned off.


·         Induced Radioactivity: Prompt radiation can generate radioactive nuclei in surrounding materials through activation (induced radioactivity). Activated materials continue to emit radiation after the accelerator has been shut off. The potential for activation exists to some extent in most areas of the Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility (CEBAF) accelerator and the Free Electron Laser (FEL).


Ionizing radiation emitted from any source presents a hazard issue, and is managed through the Jefferson Lab Radiation Control Department. Potential impact is significantly reduced by adhering to the philosophy of keeping radiation exposure ALARA - “as low as reasonably achievable.” The ALARA concept is an integral part of all activities that involve the use of radiation or radioactive materials. This includes the design, construction, and operation of existing and future facilities here at Jefferson Lab. This chapter outlines requirements and procedures applicable to everyone at the laboratory to ensure successful implementation of the program. 


The goals of the radiation protection program are summarized as follows.


·         There should not be any exposure of workers to ionizing radiation without the expectation of an overall benefit from the activity causing the exposure.

·         Radiological activities should be optimized so that dose to personnel is kept as small as practically possible.


Jefferson Lab’s Radiation Protection Program is detailed within the Radiation Control Supplement and satisfies applicable federal, state, and local requirements as outlined in ES&H Manual Chapter 2410 Appendix T1 Hazard Issues List.


2.0             Scope


This chapter applies to all operations and activities at Jefferson Lab that could create ionizing radiation, or involve procurement, production, use, movement, or disposal of radioactive materials of any kind on Jefferson Lab property. Everyone at Jefferson Lab is expected to adhere to the requirements of the program. For details regarding specific radiation control procedures and requirements, see Radiation Control Supplement, Chapter 1, Part 2 Radiological Controls and Responsibilities in the Laboratory Organization or contact the Radiation Control Department for further details.


Controls for radiation hazards judged to be unique to accelerator operations (e.g. engineered controls for prompt radiation) are identified in the Accelerator Safety Envelope (ASE) contained within Jefferson Lab’s Final Safety Assessment Document. 

Table 1: Required Radiation Control Training by Job Classification

Training Course

Individual needing Unescorted General Access to a Controlled Area

Individuals needing Unescorted Access to Radiologically Controlled Areas

Access to Radiologically Contaminated Areas

Radiological Control Technician

General Employee Radiation Training (GERT)






Rad Worker 1

SAF801P, SAF801C, SAF801T, SAF801kd





Rad Worker II

Radiologically Contaminated Area Work






Radiological Control Technician






Medical Monitoring for Hazardous Work






NOTE: Surveys, radioactive material shipping, and access to areas during high power RF testing requires additional training.  Contact Radiation Control to ensure your training is adequate and current.

* Per ES&H Manual Chapter  6800 Appendix T1 Medical Monitoring


3.0             Responsibilities

NOTE:           Management authority may be delegated to a task qualified Jefferson Lab employee at the discretion of the responsible manager. See Radiation Control Supplement, Chapter 1, Part 2 Radiological Controls and Responsibilities in the Laboratory Organization for further details.

3.1              Everyone at Jefferson Lab

·         Enter Radiologically Controlled Areas only if you have the proper training and dosimetry, as well as a current radiological survey (if necessary). 

·         Minimize intake of radioactive material. Do not smoke, eat, or chew gum or tobacco products in Radiation Areas, High Radiation Areas, Contamination Areas, High Contamination Areas, potentially contaminated areas, Airborne Radioactivity Areas, or Radioactive Material Areas.

·         Comply with radiation control instructions posted on signs, provided by the Radiation Control Department, an Assigned Radiation Monitor (ARM), and/or the Accelerator Crew Chief.

·         Notify Radiation Control Department (ext. 7212 or ext. 7219) to obtain written approval before bringing any radioactive materials, radiation-generating devices, soil density test apparatus, or the like onto the Jefferson Lab site (see Radiation Control Supplement, Chapter 4, Part 3 Radioactive Source Controls and Chapter 4, Part 4 Radiation Generating Device controls for further details).

·         Contact the Radiation Control Department (ext. 7212 or ext. 7219) before removing material from a radiological controlled area.


Examples of Radiation Postings


3.2              Radiation Workers

·         Maintain appropriate radiological training (SAF801C Rad Worker I Class (exam and practicum not available online)) and medical monitoring, as required.

·         Wear a dosimeter whenever you are in a radiologically controlled area. See Radiation Control Supplement, Chapter 5, Part 1 External Dosimetry for further details.

·         Maintain awareness of your radiation exposure status and avoid exceeding the Jefferson Lab alert level of 0.25 rem  See Radiation Control Supplement, Chapter 2, Part 1 Administrative Control Level and Dose Limits for further details. 

·         Follow the requirements of Radiological Work Permits (RWPs) and other radiation safety procedures.

·         Place potentially radioactive tools, equipment, and solid waste items in designated storage or waste containers.  Keep unnecessary items out of radiologically controlled areas, where they could become activated. Report activated items or materials to the Radiation Control Department if they have become unusable, and need to be disposed of.


3.2.1        Female Radiation Workers also:

·         Be aware that ionizing radiation can be a particular hazard for an embryo or fetus. Jefferson Lab fully supports special efforts to avoid exposure during pregnancy. See Radiation Control Supplement, Chapter 2, Part 1 Administrative Control Level and Dose Limits.

·         If you suspect, or know, that you are pregnant and you desire any accommodation you must notify your supervisor. You are also encouraged to discuss radiation monitoring with the Radiation Control Manager.


3.3              Supervisor/Subcontracting Officer’s Technical Representatives (SOTR)/Sponsor

·         Ensure that everyone under your authority stays up to date with required radiation training.

·         Ensure that worker exposure and the release of radioactive materials to the environment are kept ALARA.

·         By word and example, maintain high standards of compliance with radiation control policy.

·         Ensure that work in a radiological area is reviewed in advance by the Radiation Control Department so that an RWP is used in every applicable case.

·         Ensure that the Radiation Control Department advice about radiation controls is properly incorporated, in applicable situations, in planning for maintenance or modification.

·         Give due consideration to any special monitoring requirements or work limitations placed on Radiation Workers.


3.4              Assigned Radiation Monitor (ARM)

·         Complete and maintain appropriate radiation training and medical monitoring, as required.

·         Upon completion of training, serve as a Radiation Control Department representative to ensure radiation control programs are followed.

·         Assist the Radiation Control Department by conducting routine radiation surveys according to approved procedures prior to accelerator enclosure access.

·         Conduct non-routine surveillance, checks, and measurements under the Radiation Control Department guidance in response to unusual conditions, alarming instrumentation, etc.


3.5              Source Custodians and Radioactive Material Custodians

·         Ensure any radiation source in your charge is used, maintained, and stored properly. See Radiation Control Supplement, Chapter 4, Radioactive Materials and Sources for further details.


4.0     Expectations


Jefferson Lab expects all employees, subcontractors, users, and visitors to fulfill their responsibilities as outlined above, and to contact the Radiation Control Department (ext. 7212 or ext. 7219) when clarification or assistance is needed. 


Only appropriately trained Radiological Control Technologists (RCT) are authorized to release material from radiological controlled areas (RCA); ARMs are not authorized to perform these duties. Contact the Radiation Control Department (ext. 7212 or ext. 7219) for more information. 


5.0     Revision Summary

Revision 1.3 – 03/25/19 – Updated TPOC from V.Vylet to K.Welch

Revision 1.2 – 08/04/16 – Periodic Review; minor edit to reflect the optimization aspect of ALARA (as described in DOE-HDBK-1215-2014)

Revision 1.1 – 05/20/14 – Added Required Safety Training Table

Revision 1.0 – 06/23/11 – Updated to reflect current laboratory operations











ESH&Q Division

Keith Welch





This document is controlled as an on line file.  It may be printed but the print copy is not a controlled document.  It is the user’s responsibility to ensure that the document is the same revision as the current on line file.  This copy was printed on 3/25/2019.