ES&H Manual



6620 Appendix T2

Types, Description, and Use of

Personal Protective Equipment (PPE)



1.0            Purpose


Making the proper decision when identifying the need for and selecting the appropriate type of personal protective equipment (PPE) minimizes the risk of exposure to a hazard issue(s).  Each type has characteristics that provide specific protection. This appendix describes the most common basic, non-specialized PPE used at Jefferson Lab.


2.0            Scope


This appendix describes types of basic, non-specialized PPE used at Jefferson Lab. These include:


·         Hard Hat

·         Safety Glasses w/Side Shields (as needed)

·         Face Shield

·         Safety Shoes

·         Hearing Protection

·         Gloves

·         Knee Pads

·         Proper Work Clothes


Basic, non-specialized PPE does not protect against exposure to certain hazard issues (i.e., electricity, welding, hazardous chemicals, etc.). These hazards require specialized PPE, and often, training in its use. See the ES&H Manual Chapter applicable to a specific hazard issue for specialized PPE requirements.


Information within this appendix is provided in coordination with ES&H Manual Chapter 6620 Personal Protective Equipment.


3.0            Responsibilities


Refer to ES&H Manual Chapter 6620 Personal Protective Equipment for the list of responsibilities associated with this appendix.


4.0            Personal Protective Equipment


Basic, non-specialized PPE is used to minimize head, eyes, face, feet, hands, knees, hearing, and body injury. The supervisor of a specific work area or a Task Hazard Analysis (THA) determines the need for PPE. The list below describes the basic types of PPE and when to use it.


4.1              Hard Hat:

A type of helmet predominantly used to protect the worker’s head from falling objects, impact with other objects, debris, and electric shock.  


4.1.1        Description:

·         Hard outer shell that is Type 1 Class E and G – which provides top protection.

·         Shock-absorbing suspension that includes a headband and straps that suspend the shell from 1 inch to 1.25 inches away from the head.

·         Instructions that explain proper adjustment and replacement of the suspension and headband.


4.1.2        When to Use:

·         Work involves:  

o   Construction

o   Activities involving material handling equipment

o   Where posted


4.2              Safety Glasses w/Side Shields (as needed) and Goggles

Protection for the eyes from flying objects, particles, chemical splashes, radiant light, etc.


4.2.1        Description – those used at Jefferson Lab have:

·         Metal or plastic frames

·         Impact-resistant lenses

·         Side shields


4.2.2        When to Use:  

·         Goggles:

o   Direct-vented: These allow air flow for comfort and to reduce fogging. Generally, direct-vented goggles are inappropriate for liquid chemical use because the vent ports allow splashed liquids to pass through and they provide no protection against airborne eye irritants (gases, vapors, fumes, dusts, and mists).

o   Indirect-vented: These allow air flow for comfort and to reduce fogging. These are appropriate for liquid chemical use as they protect the eyes from splashes. They do not guard against irritating gases, vapors, fumes, dusts, and mists.

o   Non-vented: These have no vents and are required for operations that produce airborne irritating gases, vapors, fumes, dusts, and mists. They protect against chemical splashes to the eyes.

·         Laser Safety Goggles/Glasses:

o   Protect against specific wave lengths and intensities of laser light. 

o   Are labeled to signify the wavelengths, and optical density that they protect against.


4.3              Face Shields:

A device used to protect wearer's entire face (or part of it) from hazards such as flying particles, chemical splashes, sparks or metal spatter. They do not provide adequate eye protection; safety glasses or goggles must be worn under a face shield.


4.3.1        Description:

·         Basic Face Shield: sheet of clear plastic that extend from the eyebrows to below the chin and across the entire width of the head.

·         Welding Shields:

o   Fitted with a filtered lens that has a shade number to denote protection against radiant energy from the arc.

o   Protect the eyes and face from burns caused by ultraviolet light. 

o   Protect the face from flying sparks, metal spatter, and slag chips.


4.3.2        When to Use:

·         Basic Face Shield:

o   Work involves flying particles or chemical splashes.

·         Welding Shields:

o   Work involves welding, sparks, or metal spatter.


4.4              Safety Shoes:

Footwear constructed to protect the foot and/or toes from injury. 


4.4.1        Description:

·         Impact-resistant toes and heat resistant soles. 

·         Various materials for specific hazard issues. As an example:

o   Puncture – Metal insoles

o   Electric Shock – Non-conductive material

o   Static Electricity Buildup – Conductive material

o   Chemical Resistant – Rubber, polyurethane, neoprene, etc.


Other types of foot protection that may be required:

·         Metatarsal guards: made of aluminum, steel, fiber, or plastic. They are strapped to the outside of shoes to protect the instep area against impact and compression hazards.

·         Toe guards: made of steel, aluminum, or plastic. They fit over the toes of regular shoes to protect the toes from impact and compression hazards.

·         Combination foot and shin guards protect the lower legs and feet. They may be used with toe guards when additional protection is needed.



4.4.2        When to Use:

·         Construction areas

·         Falling or rolling hazards

·         Penetrating material

·         Chemicals 


4.5              Hearing Protection

Devices used to reduce the potential of hearing damage that can be caused by exposure to noise level >85 dBA. The need for hearing protection is determined by the following:

·         How loud the noise is

·         Duration of exposure


4.5.1        Description:

·         Earplugs:

o   Inserted into the ears

o   Can be either disposable or reusable 

·         Earmuffs:

o   Completely covers the ears

o   Reusable  

4.5.2        When to Use:

·         Work involves noise level ≥ 85 dBA

·         Dual hearing protection (combination of earplugs and earmuffs) must be worn when noise levels > 100 dBA


4.6              Gloves

Protect hands from injury 


4.6.1        Description:

·          Table 1 describes various types of gloves, the hazards they protect against, and the typical activity they are used for.

Table 1.  Types of Hand Protection

Type Gloves



Metal mesh, leather, canvas, Kevlar, cloth

Scrapes, cuts

Grinding, sanding, sawing, hammering, material handling

Chemical and liquid resistant

Chemicals, oil, blood or other body fluids

Pouring, mixing, corrosives, oil, painting, cleaning, health care

Leather, cryogenic, aramid fiber

Extreme heat or cold

Welding, pouring molten metal, handling cryogenic material

Electrical insulating rubber

Working on or near electrical wiring or components

Building maintenance, construction, wiring


4.6.2        When to Use: 

·         Work requires:

o   Protection from potential skin absorption or thermal burns.

o   Chemicals.

o   Insulate from potential shock.

o   Potential for bruises, abrasions, or cuts.

o   Protection from environmental extremes.


4.7              Knee Pads

Protective gear worn on the knees


4.7.1        Description:

·         A tough, abrasion-resistant outer layer

·         A soft inner material

·         A center cushion to absorb shocks and impacts


4.7.2        When to Use:

·         When work involves kneeling.


4.8              Proper Work Clothes

Sleeved shirt and long pants made from fabrics such as cotton, wool, or polyester are considered appropriate work attire at Jefferson Lab and generally provide adequate protection to the body for most work assignments. When additional protective clothing is required for certain hazard issues workers evaluate the situation or follow the THA and don the appropriate apparel.


4.8.1        Description:

·         Overalls, aprons, coveralls

·         Clothing for hot and cold temperatures

·         Vests and jackets designed for high visibility

·         Arm coverings

·         Leggings


4.8.2        When to Use: 

·         Work has the potential for injury to legs, arms, back, and chest caused by exposure to (list is not all inclusive):

o   Extreme temperatures,

o   Insects,

o   Spatter from hot metal and other liquids,

o   Impact,

o   Chemicals,

o   Cuts and scratches

o   Non-ionizing radiation. 


5.0            Revision Summary


Revision 1.1 – 02/06/17 – Periodic Review; minor edits per J.Williams

Periodic Review – 06/28/13 – No changes required per J.Williams.

Revision 1.0 – 04/29/10 – Updated to reflect current laboratory operations











ES&H Division

Jennifer Williams





This document is controlled as an on line file.  It may be printed but the print copy is not a controlled document.  It is the user’s responsibility to ensure that the document is the same revision as the current on line file.  This copy was printed on 2/7/2017.