ES&H Manual



8060 Appendix R1

Know Your Waste



1.0            Introduction


Do you need help in identifying the wastes produced by your work activities?


Do you need help in determining correct disposal procedures?


Accurate identification of a waste is an important step in the process of proper handling and disposal.  Proper identification allows us to manage our wastes effectively, efficiently, and in an environmentally sound manner.  This is part of Jefferson Lab’s contract performance measures.


Optimize use to minimize both quantities purchased and waste generated.


Following correct waste management procedures will help to:

·         minimize potential present and future harm to personal health and the environment,

·         ensure compliance with federal and state environmental regulations,

·         identify proper handling, storage, and transport needs,

·         avoid unnecessary waste-disposal expenses, and

·         determine correct disposal procedures for special waste.


Practice Environmental Management System (EMS) Maintain alertness to look for opportunities to minimize waste.


2.0            Procedure


2.1        When planning to dispose of a material, ask yourself:

·         Must it be discarded?

·         Can the material continue to be used for its intended purpose?  (Can it be reused with minor modification?)

·         Can the material be used in another department or process?

·         Does it have resale or salvage value (e.g., a fuel supplement)?

·         If it must be discarded, what is the accepted method (i.e., recycling/reclamation)?



Choose the right material and quantity for future jobs to reduce the amount of excess to be stored or waste to be trashed.  It is often more expensive to dispose of some chemicals than it is to buy them.


2.2        Is it a waste material?

·         If a material can be used in its present state, then it is not yet a waste.  All valid uses of a material should be examined before disposal.

·         If it is not a waste, pass it on to an appropriate reuser.


2.3        When it is a waste:

·         What kind of waste is it?

·         How do I dispose of it?


2.4        Seven Waste Types

·         Recyclable – see Special Note under “Recyclable and Reusable Material” regarding metals that have been in radiological areas.

·         hazardous waste

·         low level radioactive waste

·         mixed waste

·         special waste

·         regulated medical waste

·         refuse and sanitary waste (ordinary waste)


The handling and disposal of each type of waste requires:

·         specific safety precautions and

·         specific handling procedures defined by internal procedures and legal regulations (and the original material’s Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS), if applicable)


3.0            Determining Waste Types


Follow these steps to determine which type of waste will be (or has been) produced.


Step 1  Examine the ingredients used to produce the waste by referencing the MSDSs for all ingredients.


NOTE: If the identity of the material is unknown, contact Industrial Hygiene for help.


Step 2  Gather a list of the materials in the waste and a description of the process that generates the waste.


Step 3  Identify the waste type using the flowchart in Figure 1 and the detailed guidance which follows.


Making careful distinctions about hazardous waste types can minimize the amount of effort and expense put into handling and disposing of these wastes.


Figure 1.  Waste Types and Methods of Disposal


4.0            Recyclable and Reusable Material


·         Material collected at Jefferson Lab for recycling includes the following items.

o   corrugated cardboard

o   newspaper

o   telephone books

o   office paper and magazines

o   glass and plastic soda bottles

o   aluminum cans

o   scrap metal, including wire

o   lead-acid batteries

o   wood pallets

o   electronics and circuit boards

o   greeting cards

o   tyvek envelopes

o   packing peanuts

o   tapes and compact discs

·                     Materials returned to manufacturers for recycling.

o   copier/fax/laser/inkjet cartridge

o   transparency film used with overhead projectors


·         Used oil and coolant collection


Recycle dumpsters for corrugated cardboard are located in the parking lots behind the VARC, CEBAF Center and EEL building.


Collect as described in EPS-60 Waste and Recyclable Materials Management.  Refer to Table 2 in EPS-60 for program contact information.


Special Note: Metals which have resided in beam enclosures or other radiological areas are subject to a recycling moratorium.  These metals, once cleared from Radiation Control Group (RadCon) may be disposed of by other means, but may not be recycled


Note on office paper:  Position the blue recycling container at the most convenient place so disposal there is considered first.


Recyclable office papers, magazines, soda cans, glass and plastic bottles should be placed in the special blue containers found in most offices.  Large amounts of recyclable office papers should go in the large white or tan containers near your local copy machine.


Other materials to be recycled, such as cassettes and transparencies, should be placed in the local recycling center bin.


See EPS 60-R1 Disposal Practices for Recyclable Materials for information on specific items, such as toner cartridges.


5.0            Hazardous Waste


A hazardous waste is a specific type of “solid waste” and can be in the form of a solid, semi-solid, liquid, or contained gas.  The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) defines a hazardous waste as a material that is no longer suited for its intended purpose and that meets the criteria of either a “listed” or a “characteristic” hazardous waste.


To determine if you have a hazardous waste and to classify it appropriately, use the classification system established by the EPA.  This system is somewhat complicated, but it is designed to address some very real waste disposal problems.  The Jefferson Lab Hazardous Waste Coordinator (HWC) and your division Environmental, Safety, Health, and Quality (ESH&Q) staff can help you in determining the makeup of a waste.


5.1              Types of Hazardous Wastes


5.1.1        Listed hazardous wastes

Jefferson Lab’s listed wastes can be classified in the categories of F (includes paints and spent solvents), P (acute hazardous wastes such as unmixed epoxies), and U (toxic wastes).  If you have a spent solvent, solvent blend, or a pure chemical waste, it is likely a listed hazardous waste.


Refer to Subpart D of 40 CFR 261 for a complete listing.


Note:  Waste isopropanol is not a “listed” waste, but it is a hazardous waste because it is flammable.


5.1.2        Characteristic hazardous wastes

Characteristic hazardous wastes are not listed specifically by name but are harmful to humans or the environment.  They also meet specific criteria for ignitability, corrosivity, reactivity, or toxicity.  They are described in Sections 9 VAC 20-60 et seq.


Refer to EPS-61 Hazardous Waste Management for a further description of hazardous waste criteria.


5.2              Ignitability

A solid waste exhibits the characteristic of ignitability if it is:

·         a liquid with a flash point of ≤ 60°C (140°F).

·         not a liquid and is capable of causing a fire through friction or absorption of moisture and, if ignited, will burn vigorously.

·         a flammable compressed gas.

·         an oxidizer.


5.3              Corrosivity

Wastes containing acids or caustic chemicals that can damage eyes, skin or the respiratory system are considered corrosive.  They are defined as having a pH ≤ 2.0 or pH ≥ 12.5.


5.4              Reactivity

Solid wastes exhibiting the characteristic of reactivity include:

·         Unstable materials that can explode, catch fire, or release dangerous gases or vapors when they come in contact with certain materials, including water, or are exposed to heat or a jarring movement, etc.

·         Cyanide or sulfide-bearing wastes, which when exposed to pH levels between 2 and 2.5 can generate toxic gases or fumes.


5.5              Toxicity

Toxic wastes can cause damage to personal health or the environment through food, air, or water.  A waste exhibits the characteristic of toxicity if a sample of the waste “fails” the test known as the Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP).  A sample “fails” the test if it exceeds the regulatory level of any of the contaminants on the TCLP list which contains certain chemicals, metals, and pesticides.  If a waste contains significant amounts of one or more of the TCLP contaminants or organics, then it must be considered toxic waste.  Analytical testing may be required if the toxic content of the waste is not controlled or known.


If TCLP testing is needed, contact the HWC at ext. 7882.  The HWC will analyze the waste as soon as practical for:


·         unknown substances, the entire TCLP should be performed.

·         wastes that are strictly inorganic, the TCLP for metals only may be performed.


A single waste may exhibit more than one waste characteristic.  For example, solvent-soaked rags may be ignitable and toxic.  A waste exhibiting more than one characteristic must be handled and disposed of in accordance with the requirements for both characteristics.


5.6              Items of Concern

Contact the HWC or your division ESH&Q staff for help characterizing waste from:

·         circuit board etching solution

·         solder, brazing alloys

·         solvent-soaked rags

·         chemical spill cleanup debris


Remember:  No material may be added to the waste for the purpose of reducing the concentration of waste components.


Contact your safety warden, HWC, or ESH&Q staff to request sampling.  The HWC will arrange collection of the sample.


5.7              Hazardous Waste Conclusion

·         Waste generators must know the properties of the materials that created the waste, so that they may assess the characteristics of the waste itself.  The MSDS for the materials may provide this information.

·         The generators of hazardous waste bear the responsibility for minimizing its creation and ensuring its appropriate disposal.  Always label your waste containers as completely as possible with all relevant components.

·         If material is hazardous and radioactive, it is defined as a “mixed waste,” and the most stringent regulatory controls will apply.  Refer to the section on mixed wastes.

·         When you mix material or wastes you could change the original material/waste characteristics.  Check with the HWC, or an ESH&Q staff member, and review the appropriate MSDS before mixing any materials/wastes.  Mixing wastes may be dangerous in that the mixture could explode (e.g., nitric acid and methanol) or otherwise react violently.


Analysis of a “mystery waste” is expensive.


6.0            Radioactive Waste


Radioactive waste is any discarded material that meets the radiological criteria defined in Chapter 4 Part 6 Radioactive Waste Management of the Jefferson Lab Radiological Control Manual (RadCon Supplement).  Any material that contains activation detectable above background (using techniques described in RadCon standard procedures), or as listed in Chapter 2 Part 2 Contamination Control and Control Levels, Table 2-2, Summary of Contamination Values, of the RadCon Supplement, is considered to be a radioactive material.


Once a product, material, or piece of equipment is identified as waste, a check to determine its radioactivity level must be performed.  Radioactive waste most often includes contamination control scrap material, analytical containers, air and water filters, and leaky radioactive check sources.  It also includes items which have been exposed to a particle beam or its secondary radiation for a long enough period to become radioactive.


Contact the RadCon at ext. 7551 or at 876-1743 to check for radioactivity in the material. Radioactive waste shall be handled and accumulated as directed in the Jefferson Lab Radioactive Waste Management Basis and the RadCon Supplement.  In general, RadCon will manage all radioactive waste per EPS 60-T3 Radioactive Waste Collection, Storage, & Disposal.


7.0            Mixed Waste


If the radioactive waste has any hazardous waste in its makeup, it is considered “mixed waste.”  The policy for managing mixed wastes is stringent and disposal of mixed wastes can be very costly.  Therefore, it is prudent not to generate any mixed waste unless absolutely necessary.  According to Lab policy, the generation of mixed waste associated with an approved experiment requires the pre-approval of the Lab Director and the RadCon Manager.


Examples of mixed wastes could be activated contaminated solvent-covered rags, activated or contaminated oil containing solvents.


If any waste material is suspected of being a mixed waste, contact RadCon at ext. 7551 and the HWC at ext. 7882.  Refer to ES&H Manual Chapter 6761 Hazardous Waste Management and the RadCon Supplement for handling, accumulation, and disposal requirements.


Prior to the generation of any mixed waste, Jefferson Lab must identify and prearrange for disposal of this waste type.


8.0            Special Waste


“Special waste” is not hazardous waste as strictly defined, but it has the potential to damage personal health or the environment.  The following list contains common examples of special wastes that may potentially release dangerous heavy metals, organic substances, or other harmful substances if not controlled properly.


If the waste material is described by the following list, it is “special waste” which may need special handling.  Refer to ES&H Manual Chapter 8060 Waste and Recyclable Materials Management and the associated EPS-60 Waste and Recyclable Materials Management for program responsibilities for each of these special waste categories.

Refer to Appendix EPS 60-T3 “Special Wastes” Management for more detailed information about these materials.


·         aerosol cans

·         asbestos-contaminated waste

·         lead acid batteries

·         empty liquid containers

·         epoxies: dispose of catalyzed (mixed) epoxy materials as refuse; dispose of uncatalyzed (unmixed) epoxy materials as a hazardous waste

·         fluorescent light bulbs (crushed bulbs are treated as hazardous waste)

·         non-hazardous liquid wastes (including potential unusual sewer discharges)

o   ethylene glycol (anti-freeze)

o   hydraulic fluid

o   latex paint

o   liquid soaps and cleaners

o   photo finishing chemicals (used solution may contain silver)

·         oily waste

o   used oil (Refer to Appendix EPS 60-T2 Used Oil Disposal for more information)

o   oil contaminated debris

o   oil contaminated soil

·         PCB-contaminated waste

·         solid paint

·         gas cylinders


The VHWR dictates general requirements for special waste.


Refer to Chapter 8030 Appendix T1 Discharges to the Sanitary Sewer System for a list of materials that may not be discharged to the sewer system.


Batteries: Check with the HWC on proper disposal.

·         Lithium and NiCad batteries must be handled as hazardous waste.

·         Small alkaline batteries should be disposed of at a local recycling center.

·         Mercury cell batteries and lead acid batteries may be turned in to the HWC (or Physics Division ESH&Q staff) for recycling.


9.0            Regulated Medical Wastes


Infectious wastes

  • Infectious wastes and other regulated medical waste materials include:
    • sharps (needles and syringes)
    • bags labeled “Biohazard”
    • bandages (soiled with blood or other body fluids)
    • vials which could contain human body tissues or body fluids, including blood.
  • Because of the hazard presented by their potential contact with humans, these wastes are regulated and tracked according to the Medical Waste Tracking Act (MWTA) of 1988, and shipments reported to the ESH&Q Reporting Manager.


If the waste material is described above, then refer to ES&H Manual Chapter 6800 Appendix T4 Regulated Medical Waste Management for handling, accumulation, and disposal instructions.


10.0       Refuse and Sanitary Waste


There are two other significant waste streams at Jefferson Lab, both involving non-hazardous constituents.


10.1          Refuse

Refuse is solid waste that does not fall into any of the previous categories (radioactive, mixed, infectious, hazardous, special waste or recyclable).


It is generally defined as any discarded material such as:


·         garbage (food)

·         trash

·         rubbish

·         litter

·         construction debris

·         demolition debris


Refer to EPS-60 Waste and Recyclable Materials Management for guidance on refuse storage, housekeeping, and disposal.


10.2          Sanitary waste

·         Sanitary waste is general household/lavatory waste and may be disposed of through the sanitary sewer system.


·         All discharges to the local treatment plant, operated by the Hampton Roads Sanitation District (HRSD), are strictly regulated. Jefferson Lab has a permit that details allowable discharges. Jefferson Lab and HRSD sample and analyze our wastewater. Refer to Appendix 6730-T1 Discharges to the Sanitary Sewer System for more information.


If you cannot determine waste type from this appendix, contact Industrial Hygiene for assistance.


11.0       References


Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (Solid Waste Disposal Act) 42 U.S.C. §6901 et. seq.

  • Section 1004 (5) Hazardous Waste
  • Section 1004 (27) Solid Waste
  • Land Disposal Restrictions (LDR)


Medical Waste Tracking Act of 1988 (MWTA)


Executive Order 13101, Greening the Government Through Waste Prevention, Recycling, and Federal Acquisition


10 CFR Part 61 Low-Level Radioactive Waste


40 CFR 261.31, 261.32, 261.33 Hazardous and Acute Hazardous Wastes


9VAC 20-60 et. seq. Virginia Hazardous Waste Management Regulations


9VAC 20-120-10 et. seq. Regulated Medical Waste Management Regulations


Industrial Wastewater Discharge Regulations


Copies of these laws and regulations are available at the ESH&Q Division Office on the 6th floor of the ARC Building











ESH&Q Division

Bill Rainey





This document is controlled as an on line file.  It may be printed but the print copy is not a controlled document.  It is the user’s responsibility to ensure that the document is the same revision as the current on line file.  This copy was printed on 6/4/2013.