ESH&Q Division



Glossary of Terms
































abnormal situation

An unplanned event or condition that adversely affects, potentially affects, or indicates degradation in the safety, security, environmental, or health protection performance or operation of a facility.

AC utilization equipment

Equipment that utilizes electrical energy for electronic, electromechanical, chemical, heating, lighting, or similar purposes. For further information on this equipment refer to ES&H Manual Chapter 6230 Electronic Equipment Safe Work Program.

acceleration system/component

Devices capable of accelerating particles to energies of > 10 keV. This includes ac, dc, or RF voltages in excess of 10 kV applied in or near a low pressure vessel. (Prompt radiation controls are recommended for equipment capable of generating a final particle energy ≥ 25 keV.)

Accelerator Operations Directives (AOD)

A comprehensive directive that describes and governs how MCC Operations "does business." Details the approach utilized by Accelerator operators to comply with Jefferson Lab policy, procedures, and documentation requirements.(see http://opsntsrv.acc.jlab.org/ops_docs/online_document_files/ACC_online_files/accel_ops_directives.pdf)

Accelerator Safety Envelope (ASE)

A set of physical and administrative conditions based on ES&H considerations contained in DOE guidelines. The ASE establishes and defines the boundaries within which an accelerator and its experiments may be operated. If all operations are performed within the boundaries of the safety envelope, the facility staff, the facility users, the general public, and the environment are protected. (See Jefferson Lab’s Final Safety Assessment Document)

access control system (ACS)

A system that reduces the likelihood of unauthorized or inadvertent access to areas presenting a radiation hazard to personnel.

access-restricted construction site

Any construction site on Jefferson Lab property that generally meets the following criteria:

·       A fenced site separate from the Jefferson Lab operations area.

·       Vehicular access to the site does not enter the Jefferson Lab operations area.

·       Subcontractor employees are not required to have a Jefferson Lab ID badge

·       Jefferson Lab Staff, Users, or service subcontractors are not allowed free access

action level

Term used to designate when an activity requires medical surveillance, increased Industrial Hygiene monitoring, or other mitigation to reduce risk. Action levels are generally set at one half the actual permissible exposure limit (PEL), and are calculated at a time-weighted average of 8-hours of exposure (e.g.: noise, lead, beryllium.) (e.g. 30 μg/m3 concentration of lead particulates in the air for eight hours triggers stringent Industrial Hygiene monitoring.)

action owner

The individual assigned responsibility for completion of a corrective action.

active controls

Controls that require some action to prevent or mitigate a hazard.

administrative control level

A numerical dose constraint established at a level below regulatory limits that administratively controls and helps reduce individual and collective dose.

administrative controls

Controls which require action on the part of an individual to be effective. Effectiveness depends upon individual awareness and compliance. Used when a hazard cannot be reduced to safe levels through engineering controls. The most common Administrative Controls at Jefferson Lab include, but are not limited to: procedures, recordkeeping, assessment, and reporting. (Administrative controls are the least preferred method of hazard mitigation.)

administrative lockout/tagout

Procedures used to restrict operation, access, equipment use, or tampering for reasons other than maintenance and repair. (See ES&H Manual Chapter 6111 Administrative Control using Locks and Tags.)

Administrative Lockout/Tagout Tag

AdminTag.jpgClearly distinguishable from Jefferson Lab approved Danger Tags.

administrative procedures

Procedures related to ES&H, adopted by Jefferson Lab, that do not directly alter the level of safety, health, or environmental protection.

adverse event

Any unfavorable medical occurrence in a human subject, including any abnormal sign (for example, abnormal physical exam or laboratory finding), symptom, or disease, temporally associated with the subjects participation in the research, whether or not considered related to the subject's participation in the research.

affected employee

A person who relies on equipment that LO/TO is applied to during maintenance or service. The affected employee is not necessarily the one performing the maintenance. It is anyone whose work requires entry into an area where that person could be injured by an uncontrolled release of energy as the result of maintenance and/or service or whose work is interrupted by the maintenance and/or service.

affirmative procurement (AP)

A federal program that obligates the federal government to participate in the final link in the closed loop recycling process; procurement of products made from recycled materials.

agreement parties

The parties authorized to sign the contract, and modifications thereof, between the DOE and the Jefferson Science Associates, LLC (JSA) on behalf of their respective institutions. These parties are the Contracting Officer and the President of JSA.

airborne radioactive material or

airborne radioactivity

Radioactive material dispersed in the air in the form of dusts, fumes, particulates, mists, vapors, or gases.

airborne radioactivity area

Any area, accessible to individuals where: (1) The concentration of airborne radioactivity, above natural background, exceeds or is likely to exceed the derived air concentration (DAC) values listed in Appendix A or Appendix C of 10 CFR 835 or (2) An individual present in the area without respiratory protection could receive an intake exceeding 12 DAC-hours in a week.

alert level

The cumulative annual exposure that triggers special efforts to keep an individual’s exposure ALARA. Jefferson Lab’s alert level is 0.25 rem (250 mrem) in 1 year.

alternative design rules

A set of design rules that permit the safe design of a pressure system that cannot be made to conform to the ASME BPV or B31.3 because of materials, material thickness, or operating conditions.

alternate duty

A temporary assignment to other-than-customary work operation that allows productive work during an injury recuperation period. This may include an assignment outside the employee’s normal work group.

American National Standards Institute and the Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers (ANSI/IEEE)

These two organizations have collaborated to produce two standards, “Recommended Practice for the Measurement of Potentially Hazardous Electromagnetic Fields — RF and Microwave.” Its reference number is C95.3–1991. (Also the “IEEE Standard for Safety Levels with respect to Human Exposure to Radio Frequency Electromagnetic Fields” C95.1 3 kHz to 300 GHz.) http://www.ansi.org/ / http://www.ieee.org/portal/site

American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME)

The professional engineering organization whose Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code is the standard for pressure vessel engineering at Jefferson Lab. This code can also be adapted for certain cases of vacuum vessel engineering design. The most frequently used sections of the Code as applied to pressure vessels used at Jefferson Lab are: Section II Materials, Section VIII Rules for Construction of Pressure Vessels, and Section IX Welding and Brazing Qualifications. http://www.asme.org/

ANSI Z-136.1 “American National Standard for Safe Use of Lasers”

Sufficient external standard requirements Jefferson Lab is contractually required to meet for safe laser use, prepared by the American National Standards Institute. Copies are available from the Laser Safety Officer or ESH&Q Reporting Officer.

approved equipment

An apparatus or component of a system, including any associated safety equipment, used for welding, cutting, or brazing that has been approved by management for the intended purpose.

arc flash boundary

The approach limit from a prospective arc source within which a person could receive a second degree burn if an electrical arc flash were to occur (ref. NFPA 70E). When work is to be performed within the arc flash boundary, the qualified persons use personal protective equipment (PPE) that is appropriate for the available incident energy of the system being worked on.

as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA)

The approach used in radiation protection to manage and control exposures (both individual and collective) to the work force and the general public, taking into account social, technical, economic, practical, and public policy considerations. ALARA is not a dose limit, but a process with the objective of attaining doses as far below the applicable limits as is reasonably achievable.

asbestos-containing building material (ACBM)

Components, systems, or surfaces in a building that were manufactured with asbestos, or to which asbestos coatings have been applied.

ASME – Boiler and Pressure Vessel (BPV) Code

The national consensus code used as the standard for pressure vessel design, fabrication, testing, and inspection at Jefferson Lab. The most frequently used sections of the ASME BPV Code as applied to pressure vessels at Jefferson Lab are:

·     Section II: Materials, Parts A, B, C, and D

·     Section V: Nondestructive Examination

·     Section VIII: Rules for Construction of Pressure Vessels, Divisions I & II

·     Section IX: Welding and Brazing Qualifications

ASME – Code for Pressure Piping B31

The national consensus code used as the standard for piping system design, fabrication, testing, and inspection at Jefferson Lab. The sections of B31 that apply to piping systems at Jefferson Lab include:

·               B31.1 Power Piping

·               B31.3 Process Piping*

·               B31.5 Refrigeration Piping

·               B31.9 Building Services Piping


*ASME B31.3 Process Piping shall be used as the primary standard for Jefferson Lab piping systems. Other sections shall be applied as appropriate based on sound judgment of the Design Authority and proven practices in the respective field.

assigned radiation monitor (ARM)

Assists the Radiation Control Department in performing radiation survey measurements of the facility and equipment. ARMs are members of the FEL group and the Machine Control Center staff, as well as others, who have completed special radiation survey training.


Staff members who have completed special radiation survey training and assist the Radiation Control Department in performing radiation survey measurements of the facility and equipment.


An individual stationed outside a permit-required confined space (PRCS) who monitors the authorized entrants and performs other duties as indicated on the entry permit. (See ES&H Manual Chapter 6160 Confined Space Entry.)

audiometric testing

A procedure that measures hearing ability. The perception threshold is established at representative frequencies from 500 Hz to 8 kHz. The unit of measure is decibels on the A-weighted sound scale (dBA), which measures the slow response sound pressure level relative to 0.2 newton/cm2, frequency-normalized for typical human ear sound response.

authority having jurisdiction (AHJ)

The decision-making authority for fire-protection systems, building features, and suitability for occupancy with respect to fire safety as described in ES&H Manual Chapter 6900 Fire Protection Program. Final AHJ responsibilities rest with the cognizant DOE Authority. The Jefferson Lab Facilities Management Director (PED) provides the laboratory with direction for fire-protection based upon contractual commitments and applicable standards and codes, and serves as the on-site AHJ.

authorized employee

Employee given permission to perform a task by the responsible Supervisor after consideration of the necessary qualifications, experience, and other work planning factors.

Automated External Defibrillator (AED)

A computerized medical device that can check a person’s heart rhythm, recognize a rhythm that requires a shock, and advise the rescuer when a shock is needed. The AED uses voice prompts, lights, and text messages to tell the rescuer the steps to take.

aversion response

Often referred to as the “blink reflex,” closing of the eyelids, or movement of the eyes/head to avoid exposure to a noxious stimulant or bright light. The aversion response is assumed to occur within 0.25 sec including blink reflex time and is only applicable to visible laser wavelengths.


backflow preventer

A mechanical device used to prevent foreign materials from entering and contaminating the drinking water supply.

backup protection

A secondary, redundant, protective system designed to de-energize a device, system, or facility so as to permit safe physical contact by maintenance personnel. A backup protective system is totally independent of the first-line protection and capable of functioning in the event of total failure of the first-line protective system.

beam dump

A beam dump is a complete system that provides for the controlled absorption of the accelerated beam power.

beam line

All accelerator components that comprise the vacuum space through which the electron beam is transported.

Beam “on”/“off”

The injector gun is or is not in the beam permit state.

beam power absorber

A device designed to safely absorb an electron beam and transfer the power to another medium.

Becquerel (Bq)

The Standard International (SI) unit of radioactivity. One becquerel is the quantity of radioactive material in which one atom is transformed per second or undergoes one disintegration per second.

below-the-hook lifting device

Any device, other than slings, used for attaching loads to a hoist (such as a spreader bar), as described in ASME B30.20-1993 Section 20-0.1. (See ES&H Manual Chapter 6141 Material Handling Equipment – Rigging, Cranes, and Hoists.)

beryllium article

Defined by 10 CFR 850 Chronic Beryllium Disease Prevention Program; Final Rule December 8, 1999: An item that is formed to a specific shape or design during manufacture, has end-use functions that depend (entirely or in part) on its shape or design during end use, and does not release beryllium or otherwise result in exposure to airborne concentrations of beryllium under normal conditions of use.


The determination of the kinds, quantities, or concentrations, and, in some cases, locations of radioactive material in the human body, whether by direct measurement or by analysis and evaluation of radioactive materials excreted or removed from the human body.

bio-based product

A commercial or industrial product (other than food or feed) that utilizes biological products or renewable domestic agricultural (plant, animal, or marine) or forestry materials.

bioelectronic device

Any type of electrically powered medical device that assists in maintaining metabolic processes or is worn for diagnostic purposes. These may be surgically implanted or worn externally. Examples include cardiac pacemakers, implanted defibrillators, and insulin pumps.

blind penetration

Drilling, cutting, nailing, and installing fasteners, etc. into a wall or floor when the interior is concealed from view. (See ES&H Manual Chapter 3320 Temporary Work Permits.)

bloodborne pathogens

Pathogenic microorganisms that are present in human blood and can cause disease in humans. These pathogens include, but are not limited to, Hepatitis B Virus (HBV) and Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV). (See ES&H Manual Chapter 6800 Occupational Medicine.)


An assembly having its joints produced by brazing.


A joining process whereby a nonferrous filler metal or alloy is heated to melting temperature and distributed between two or more close-fitting parts by capillary action.

brazing procedure specification (BPS)

Written detailed methods and practices for brazing, including a brazing procedure involved in the production of a brazement.

building service electrical equipment

All industry standard, UL listed (or other nationally recognized testing standard) electrical equipment that provides common building utilities such as electrical distribution, environmental controls, elevator service, compressed air, and refrigeration.

Business Continue Plan (or Program) (BCP)

An ongoing process supported by senior management to ensure that the necessary steps are taken to identify the impact of potential losses, maintain viable recovery plans and strategies, and ensure continuity of operations through personnel training, plan testing, and maintenance.



To adjust and/or determine either: (1) The response or reading of an instrument relative to a standard (e.g., primary, secondary, or tertiary) or to a series of conventionally true values or (2) The strength of a radiation source relative to a standard (e.g., primary, secondary, or tertiary) or conventionally true value.

cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR)

An emergency procedure consisting of artificial respiration and external chest compressions to maintain a steady flow of blood and oxygen for a person whose heart and/or lungs have stopped functioning. (See http://www.jlab.org/div_dept/train/ to schedule training.)

change driver

The reason for considering and/or making a change to an existing obligatory procedure.

Clean Air Act and Amendments (CAAA)

Sets limits on certain air pollutants to help ensure basic health and environmental protection. It gives the EPA authority to limit emissions of air pollutants coming from sources like chemical plants, utilities, and still mills. States may have stronger air pollution laws, but may not have weaker limits than those set by the EPA. The 1990 Clean Air Act is the most recent version of a law first passed in 1970 to clean up air pollution. See www.epa.gov/air/caa/.

closed-loop recycling

The process by which products are purchased and used then collected and reused, avoiding the cost and environmental damage associated with waste disposal. This reuse may include the product itself (book exchange) or the products material (old newspaper to cellulose).

cognizant person

A person who is knowledgeable, trained, certified, and designated by either Physics or Accelerator Division Management as appropriate (per Jefferson Lab’s Final Safety Assessment Document).

collective dose

The sum of the total effective dose equivalent values for all individuals in a specified population. Collective dose is expressed in units of person-rem (or person-sievert).

Committed Effective Dose

The sum of the committed equivalent doses to various tissues or organs in the body (HT,50), each multiplied by the appropriate tissue weighting factor (wT)—that is, E50= ΣwTHT,50+ wRemainderHRemainder,50. Where “wRemainder” is the tissue weighting factor assigned to the remainder organs and tissues and “HRemainder,50” is the committed equivalent dose to the remainder organs and tissues.

Committed Equivalent Dose

The equivalent dose calculated to be received by a tissue or organ over a 50-year period after the intake of a radionuclide into the body. It does not include contributions from radiation sources external to the body.

competent person

A person who has documented training and experience in locating, identifying, and marking buried and concealed utilities by use of specialized instruments and by interpreting building and site drawings to aid in such location.

compressed (or pressurized) gas

Any gas enclosed in a container at a pressure higher than 40 psia at 68°F (20°C); also any flammable liquid enclosed in a container with a vapor pressure of 40 psia or higher at 100°F (37.8°C). See ES&H Manual Chapter 6150 Compressed, Liquefied, and Solidified Gas Program

configuration control

A strict change control system that protects all elements of a set of prompt ionizing radiation controls from unauthorized or inadvertent modification.

confined space

An area that meets all three of the following criteria:

·       There is sufficient space for a person to enter and perform work;

·       There are limited/restricted means for entering/exiting the space;

·       The space was not designed for continuous occupancy.

(See ES&H Manual Chapter 6160 Confined Space Entry.)

confined space entry

Occurs when any part of the body breaks the plane of the confined space opening. See ES&H Manual Chapter 6160 Confined Space Entry

consequence level

The likely effect of an incident/accident in terms of injury to personnel, damage to facility operation, and environmental impact.








Serious impact on-site and off-site. May cause deaths or loss of facility operation. Major impact on the environment

> $100,000



Major impact on and/or minor impact off-site. May cause death, severe injury, severe occupational illness to personnel, major damage to the facility operation, or minor impact on the environment.

> $50,000



Minor impact on-site with no off-site impact. May cause minor injury, minor occupational illness, or minor impact on the environment.

> $500

Extremely Low


Will not result in a significant injury, occupational illness, or provide a significant impact on the environment

< $500

(See ES&H Manual Chapter 3210 Appendix T3 Risk Code Assignment.)


The combination of erection, installation, assembly, demolition, or fabrication activities involved in creating a new facility or altering, adding to, rehabilitating, dismantling, or removing an existing facility. It also includes the alteration and repair (including dredging, excavating, and painting) of buildings, structures, or other real property, as well as any construction, demolition, and excavation activities conducted as part of environmental restoration or remediation efforts.


Any objectionable or hazardous physical, chemical, biological, or radiological substance or matter in water.

contaminated surface

The presence or the reasonably anticipated presence of blood or other potentially infectious materials on an item or surface.

contamination area

An area where transferable radioactive contamination exists in quantities above specified limits. These areas are posted with signs and access is restricted to specially trained workers via Radiological Work Permits (RWPs).

Continuity of Operations Plan (COOP)

An internal effort within an organization to assure that the capability exists to continue essential business functions across a wide range of potential emergencies, including localized acts of nature, accidents, and technological and/or attack/terrorist-related emergencies. Essentially equivalent to Business Continuity Plan.

Continuous Communications

(In reference to PRCS areas having ODH conditions) Achieved when a frequent verbal exchange, at normal conversation levels, allows the Authorized Attendant to assess the Authorized Entrant’s condition without visual aid.


The following are NOT considered constant communication: monitoring at a distance that requires communication at higher than conversation levels; cell phones, two-way radios, two-way voice pagers, any paging system, cameras, or PA systems.

contracting technical representative (CTR) (See SOTR)

An employee who acts as liaison between the Lab and contracted workers and is responsible for their actions while here.

contributing factor

A situation, condition, or practice that made an accident more likely to occur or that worsened the outcome. (See ES&H Manual Chapter 5200 Event Investigation and Causal Analysis Process.)

control of the site

When a group performing work has taken physical control of the site to the extent that previously marked utilities cannot be altered and additional utilities cannot be installed without their knowledge.

controlled area

An area where access is controlled to protect individuals from radiation exposure.

controlled area radiation monitor (CARM)

A radiation detection system in an occupied area interlocked to the accelerator’s Personnel Safety System (PSS) that shuts off the electron beam if radiation levels exceed set points.

controlled document

A document approved by an appropriate level of management, reviewed at a predetermined interval, and made available to those who perform under its direction.


Provisions related to organization and management (i.e. procedures, recordkeeping, assessment, and reporting) necessary to ensure safe operation of a facility. Practices or devices designed to manage or reduce hazards. Controls may consist of engineering and/or administrative devices, warnings, or procedures designed to control hazards.

Corrective Action (See also: Preventive Action)

An activity that restores a service, item, component, or process to a state of acceptable compliance with specifications, procedures, or regulatory requirements. (Corrective actions are designated in CATS within the “Issue Type” pull-down menu.)

Corrective Action Tracking System (CATS)

The Jefferson Lab online database used to document, track, and trend findings, observations, and proposed corrective actions to completion. https://mis.jlab.org/ehs/


A chemical that causes visible destruction of or irreversible alterations in living tissue by chemical action at the site of contact.


A training program or “learning activity” that is designed to teach or impart the information necessary to acquire a skill.

crane/hoist owner/Supervisor

The individual listed on Jefferson Lab property documentation as the custodian of the Material Handling Equipment.

Credited control

A safety control established to mitigate a hazard that is categorized as unacceptable (or in some cases tolerable) and, therefore, included in the Accelerator Safety Envelope.

Criteria and Review Approach Document (CRAD)

A detailed compilation of documentation titles, positions/titles of interviewees, locations and work functions to observe, and questions to ask to perform an assessment.

critical device

An accelerator or beamline component(s) specifically designed and used to ensure that the electron beam is either inhibited or cannot be transported into areas where people are present (occupied area). A critical device can be an individual component or a collection of components. Examples include power supplies, power switches, beam stoppers, beam current monitors, and electron guns. The configuration of critical devices is controlled to ensure that critical device function meets the requirements in the Accelerator Safety Envelope. The Conduct of Engineering Manual gives the process for managing the configuration of critical devices. The Safety Configuration Management Board must concur in any changes to critical devices.

critical lift

As defined by DOE-STD-1090-2007 Standard for Hoisting and Rigging: Chapter 2 – A lift shall be designated critical if any of the following conditions are met:

1.     The load item, if damaged or upset would result in a release, into the environment of radioactive or hazardous material exceeding the established permissible environmental limits.

2.     The load item is unique and, if damaged, would be irreplaceable or not repairable and is vital to a system, facility or project operation.

3.     The cost to replace or repair the load item, or the delay in operations of having the load item damaged would have a negative impact on facility, organizational, or DOE budgets to the extent that it would affect program commitments.

4.     A lift not meeting the above criteria shall also be designated critical if mishandling or dropping of the load would cause any of the above noted consequences to nearby installations or facilities.”

(See ES&H Manual Chapter 6141 Appendix T4 Hoisting and Rigging Operations.)


A meeting of personnel involved in or knowledgeable about an event (either a success or an abnormal event) where chronological listing of the facts is documented.


A super-cooled substance, usually liquid, that is used to cool other materials to extremely low temperatures.

curie (Ci)

Unit of radioactivity equivalent to 37 billion disintegrations per second.


The act of shearing, slicing, or shaping metal (usually using cutting torches or powered tools) that produces hot edges or fragments.


daisy chain

Extension cords connected one to another in a series.

danger tag

A specific type of tag (and the only authorized tag) used as the official warning tag for maintenance and repair LO/TO at Jefferson Lab. It is used to warn people not to tamper with equipment that has the potential for a hazardous release of energy. Each tag must carry the printed name of the person who placed the tag. Below is a typical tag.


declared pregnant worker

A woman who has voluntarily declared to her employer, in writing, her pregnancy for the purpose of being subject to the occupational exposure limits to the embryo/fetus as provided in 10 CFR 835.206. This declaration may be revoked, in writing, at any time by the declared pregnant worker.


The process of removing or neutralizing a harmful substance, such as radioactive materials or chemicals, from personnel, equipment, or areas.

deep dose equivalent

The dose equivalent derived from external radiation at a depth of 1 cm in tissue.

Defense in-depth control

A safety control established to provide protection beyond that afforded by a credited control; or to mitigate other lesser hazards that are categorized as acceptable (or in some cases tolerable).


A product or service delivered to fulfill a contract.

deluge system

Special-purpose extinguishing system for a limited-size, high-hazard area with a limited quantity of extinguishing agent.

derived air concentration (DAC)

For the radionuclides listed in “Appendix A to 10 CFR 835,” the airborne concentration that equals the annual limit intake (ALI) divided by the volume of air breathed by an average worker for a working year of 2000 hours (assuming a breathing volume of 2400 m3). For the radionuclides listed in “Appendix C to 10 CFR 835,” the air immersion DACs calculated for continuous, non-shielded exposure via immersion in a semi-infinite atmospheric cloud.

derived air concentration (DAC)-hour

The product of the concentration of radioactive material in air (expressed as a fraction or multiple of the DAC for each radionuclide) and the time of exposure to that radionuclide, in hours.

Design Authority

The engineer designated by a Division Head to be responsible for establishing the design requirements and ensuring that design output documentation accurately reflects the design basis. The Design Authority is responsible for design control and ultimate technical adequacy of the design process. These responsibilities are applicable whether the process is conducted fully in-house, partially contracted to outside organizations, or fully contracted to outside organizations. The Design Authority may delegate design work, but not its responsibilities.


Engineer designated by a Division to be responsible for pressure system design, fabrication, and testing.

design review

A process to identify and correct errors and discrepancies in project designs, while ensuring conformance with applicable codes and standards. It also ensures completeness, value engineering, and the ability to construct and maintain a durable and safe facility that meets the needs of its users. The scope and detail of design review is generally matched to that of the intended project.

designated inspector

A person who, on the basis of training, experience, and qualifications, has been designated to perform inspection duties in his/her area of expertise.


Approved container for storing cryogens.

direct electrical hazard

A potential source of injury resulting from the flow of electrical energy through a person (electrical shock and burns).

disposition standard

The retention period or length of time that records are kept.


Using different technologies to accomplish a given task, such as beam shutdown.


Information and its supporting medium, which can be paper, magnetic, electronic or optical computer disc, photograph or master sample, or any combination thereof. Jefferson Lab utilizes three separate categories of controlled documents:

·       Class I – Reviewed and approved by the DOE/ TJSO under contractual or regulatory requirements.

·       Class II – Approved by the Laboratory Director and his designees.

·       Class III – Address Risk Codes of > 2 or determine the actions of more than one work group, and are approved by affected management and, if applicable, Subject Matter Experts.

document hierarchy


The Document Management System established at Jefferson Lab to facilitate the availability and retrieval of documents. This Document Management System is a searchable, web-based content management system that allows users to employ a web browser to store, view, edit, and share information with other users across the Internet.

DOE Contracting Officer (CO)

The person designated by the DOE as having DOE approval authority for matters pertaining to the Jefferson Lab contract.

DOE ES&H Program Manager (PM)

The person designated by the DOE to have approval authority with the CO for matters pertaining to the WSS (Work Smart Standards) if there is a potential change in the level of protection in environment, safety, or health.

DOE reportable occurrence

Any unusual or unplanned event that has or could adversely affect public health; the performance, reliability, or safety of a facility; or the environment, as described in ES&H Manual Chapter 5300 Appendix T1 Occurrence Reporting to Department of Energy (DOE) and Notification Procedure. Reportable occurrences are classified by their potential for personal injury, environmental damage, and/or equipment loss. Additional information on the occurrence categorization process is available in DOE Manual 231.1-2.


1.     Term used to include absorbed dose, equivalent dose, effective dose, committed equivalent dose, committed effective dose, or total effective dose as defined in 10CFR835.

2.     Generic term applied to quantities such as dose equivalent and its derivatives, and somewhat less formally to exposure.

dose equivalent

The absorbed dose measured at a point multiplied by a Quality Factor that accounts for the relative biological damage of the specific type of radiation.

dose equivalent rate

Dose equivalent divided by the time period.

dose tracking

The use of supplemental, direct reading dosimeters (or other equivalent means) for purposes of assessing, tracking and managing radiation exposures associated with a particular work activity.


effective dose equivalent (HE)

For purposes of compliance with 10 CFR 835, deep dose equivalent to the whole body may be used as effective dose equivalent for external exposures. The effective dose equivalent is expressed in units of rem (or sievert). (See “effective dose”)

effective dose

The summation of the products of the equivalent dose received by specified tissues or organs of the body (HT) and the appropriate tissue weighting factor (wT)— that is, E = &#931;wTHT. It includes the dose from radiation sources internal and/or external to the body. (See “effective dose equivalent”).


Any treated or untreated air emission or liquid discharge, including stormwater runoff, at a site or facility.

Electrical Authority Having Jurisdiction (EAHJ)

An entity authorized by Jefferson Lab and approved by the Thomas Jefferson Site Office that makes decisions regarding relevant regulations, codes, and standards used to develop practices and procedures that protect both qualified and unqualified persons from exposure to hazards associated with electrical work. This entity also reviews requests for clarification, interpretation, or equivalency to requirements and grant exemptions where it is assured that equivalent safety is achieved by the deviation.

electrical power distribution

The arrangement of feeders, transformer substations, electrical panel boards, and circuit breakers that supply electrical power to end user connection points.

electrical system

The assemblage of equipment that delivers AC electrical power to permanently-connected loads, including AC utilization equipment. This includes utility feeders, transformer substations, circuit breakers, busses and wiring, and electrical panel boards.

electrically safe work condition

An equipment condition where sources of energy are removed; the disconnecting means is under one of the lock/tag/try methods, the absence of voltage is verified by an approved voltage testing device, and, where applicable, temporarily grounded. NFPA 70E Article 120 provides details.


Pertaining to electrical circuits that use a variety of components (i.e., resistors, capacitors, conductors, etc.) to manipulate electrical signals and energy in a desired way. This does not include electrical distribution system equipment, but does include controllers and power supplies.

embedded laser

An enclosed laser with an assigned class number that is higher than the inherent capability of the laser system in which it is incorporated. When hazard ranking the laser, the system’s lower classification is appropriate due to the engineering features limiting accessible emission.

Emergency Manager

Responsible for ensuring that Laboratory staff maintains an appropriate level of readiness for on-site emergencies, including the development and maintenance of pre-plans, preparations and other resources. Provides direct consultation and support to members of the Emergency Management Team and other planning or response teams.

Emergency Management

The process an organization uses to prevent, mitigate, and recover from emergencies. Consists of planning, preparing, responding, and readiness assurance activities.

Emergency Planning

Developing and preparing emergency plans and procedures; identifying necessary personnel and resources to provide effective responses in the event of an emergency.

Emergency Preparedness

The training of personnel; acquiring and maintaining resources; exercising the plans, procedures, personnel, and resources essential for emergency response.

Emergency Response

Implementation of emergency plans. Includes the decisions, actions, application of resources, and recovery.

emergency responder

Trained, professional emergency medical and firefighter personnel.

Emergency Warning Siren (Outdoors)

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(Synonym: staff)

Any individual paid by JSA or the state, including students, full-time or part-time employees, and term or casual employees.

employee exposure record

A record containing any of the following kinds of information: (1) environmental (workplace) monitoring or measuring of a toxic substance or harmful physical agent; (2) biological monitoring results that directly assess the absorption of a toxic substance or harmful physical agent (including radiation) by body systems; (3) MSDSs indicating that the material may pose a hazard to human health; (4) a chemical inventory or other record that reveals where and when used and the identity of a toxic substance or harmful physical agent.

employee medical record

A record concerning the health status of an employee that is made or maintained by a physician, nurse, or other health care worker. It includes medical and possibly employment questionnaires or histories, results of medical examinations and treatments, and employee medical complaints.

enclosed laser

A laser or laser system located within a protective housing so that access to laser radiation above the MPE (maximum permissible exposure) limit is precluded. Opening, damaging, or removing the protective housing provides additional access than is possible with the protective housing in place and could expose workers to laser radiation above the applicable MPE. (An embedded laser is an example of one type of enclosed laser.)

Energized Electrical Work Permit (EEWP)

A document, approved by the Laboratory Director, to justify the need for doing Mode 3 manipulative work with the equipment energized. A Work Control Document including a formal Task Hazard Analysis; hazard control boundaries; Personal Protective Equipment (PPE); and specific steps to accomplish the task are developed and approved by the Associate Director/Division Manager (of group requesting the EEWP). Worker qualifications and any unusual aspects of the work are included. (See ES&H Manual Chapter 6220 Appendix T1 Energized Electrical Work Permit (EEWP) – Instructions)

energy-draining device

A physical device that channels the transmission or release of energy (e.g., grounding rods and vent valves).

energy-isolating device

A mechanical device that prevents the transmission or release of energy. Circuit breakers, disconnect switches, and line valves are examples of energy-isolating devices. Push buttons, selector switches, and other control circuit type devices are not energy isolating devices.

engineering controls

Measures designed to eliminate or reduce exposure to a physical hazard through the use of engineered machinery or equipment without active involvement of personnel. (These controls do not include HVAC systems.)


Components and systems that reduce airborne radioactivity and the spread of contamination by using piping, containments, ventilation, filtration, or shielding.


Occurs when any part of the body breaks the plane of a confined space opening.

entry supervisor

The individual responsible for determining if acceptable entry conditions are present at a PRCS when entry is planned, authorizing entry, overseeing entry operations, and terminating entry. (Note that the entry supervisor may not be the individual’s Supervisor.)


Surroundings in which an organization operates (including air, water, land, natural resources, flora, fauna, and humans) and their interrelations. Surroundings extend from within an organization to the global system.

environmental aspect

Any element of an organization’s activities, products, or services that interacts with the environment (cause). This applies to impacts ranging from negligible to significant (e.g., emissions to the air as the result of operating forklifts, etc.).

environmental aspect category

Used to separate environmental aspects into groupings (e.g., regulated waste, ionizing radiation, etc.).

environmental aspect, significant

Any feature of an organization’s activities, products, or services that can interact with the environment and has or can have a considerable impact on the environment.

environmental baseline

The approved description of chemical, biological, physical, and radiological characteristics (determined primarily through groundwater monitoring) that represents the starting level for evaluating Jefferson Lab’s effect on the environment.

environmental impact

Any change to the environment, whether adverse or beneficial, wholly or partially resulting from an organization’s activities, products, or services (effect) (e.g., change in air quality as the result of emissions from equipment, etc.).

environmental management procedure (EMP)

A Standard Operating Procedure (SOP) that documents Jefferson Lab’s EMS management procedures.

Environmental Management System (EMS)

The part of the overall management system that includes organization structure, planning activities, responsibilities, practices, procedures, processes, and resources for developing, integrating, achieving, reviewing, and maintaining the environmental program; a continuing cycle of planning, implementing, evaluating, and improving processes and actions undertaken to achieve environmental goals.

environmental monitoring

The use of instruments, systems, or special techniques to measure liquid, gaseous, and/or airborne effluents and contaminants.

environmental performance measure

Measurable results of the EMS, related to an organization’s control of its environmental aspects, based on its environmental program, objectives, and goals.

Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)

The federal agency that represents the executive department in protecting the nation’s environment. Their realm includes surface water, groundwater, land, geological resources, and air resources. The EPA is involved in research and development, developing regulations, enforcing regulations, providing information, educating the nation, and investigating issues. (40 CFR series) See http://www.epa.gov/

environmental surveillance

The all-encompassing act of monitoring the environment, measuring, collecting, and analyzing samples of air, water, soil, foodstuffs, biota, and other media from DOE sites and their environs. Its purpose is to show that applicable standards are met, to assess radiation exposures to members of the public, and to assess effects, if any, on the environment.

environmentally harmful material (EHM)

Any material that could have a negative impact on the environment or public health, including EHSs, HSs, toxic chemicals, and more.


A general term used to describe a mechanical or electrical machine or system that may require maintenance or repair.

equivalent dose

The product of average absorbed dose (DT,R) in rad (or gray) in a tissue or organ (T) and a radiation (R) weighting factor (wR). For external dose, the equivalent dose to the whole body is assessed at a depth of 1 cm in tissue; the equivalent dose to the lens of the eye is assessed at a depth of 0.3 cm in tissue, and the equivalent dose to the extremity and skin is assessed at a depth of 0.007 cm in tissue. (See “dose equivalent”).


Anyone having the appropriate training and authorization to enter the area(s) being visited. (Exception: Subcontract employees are allowed to provide escort services for deliveries of materials only, unless otherwise defined within their contract.)

ESH&Q Reporting Officer

The person with direct responsibility for categorizing and communicating all DOE reportable occurrences. This person is responsible for determining if incidents meet the ORPS reportability threshold, as well as the specific codes for severity and classification. (See ES&H Manual Chapter 2210 Appendix R1 Staff Assigned to ES&H Activities for contact information.)

essential personnel

Those whose duties and responsibilities are essential in carrying out critical operations or who have key knowledge, skills, or access to resources necessary to protect other people and/or Lab property. The designation of Essential Personnel is made by the respective department director or group leader, and the list should be reviewed at least quarterly to ensure accuracy. Note that Essential designations may be different for different types of emergencies; more than one list may be appropriate.

Evacuation Drill Coordinator

Prepares and performs evacuation drills in assigned buildings in accordance with ES&H Manual – Fire Protection Supplement – Chapter 9: Evacuation Drills.

event (see also: incident)

1.     An Assessment/Audit performed on the behalf or request of an inside/outside agency or entity, or as part of a contract commitment. Generally assessments/audits require a formal report to document any noted deficiencies. (Includes: ES&H Manual Revisions, Environmental Management System (EMS) Reviews, Independent Assessments (IA), Management-Self (or similar) Assessments (MSA), Project Deadlines, Safety Team Reviews, and Worker Safety Committee findings)

2.     Inspection activities that are generally scheduled and performed by in-house staff, on a regular basis, on behalf of upper-level management or to monitor safety requirements. (Includes: ES&H Department Inspections, ESAF Walkthroughs, Laser Safety Inspections, Safety Warden Monthly and Quarterly Inspections, Observations by External Sources, Management, Staff, or Workers)

3.     An occurrence that results in an undesired workplace incident that causes injury, illness, property or equipment damage, environment concern, or disruption of operations. (Includes: First-aid, Occurrence, or Notable Event)

(See ES&H Manual Chapter 5200 Event Investigation and Causal Analysis Process.)

Event Owner

The person responsible for ensuring that all issues are completed and closed before the related event is submitted for closure.


The quality control functions performed by the manufacturer, fabricator, erector, or other parties authorized by Jefferson Lab, which include nondestructive examinations such as visual, radiography, ultrasonic, eddy current, liquid penetrant, and magnetic particle methods.


A person qualified and certified to perform examination duties.


Digging, grading, tunneling, trenching, or drilling below grade, and installing stakes, rods, etc. to a depth greater than 6-inches. This includes penetrations of slabs on grade such as sidewalks and roads.

excluded vessels

Pressurized vessels that do not fall within the scope of the ASME Pressure Vessel Code. The ASME Code specifically excludes: Vessels having an internal or external operating pressure not exceeding 15 psi; Vessels having an inside diameter, width, height, or cross section diagonal not exceeding 6 inches; Machinery such as pumps, compressors, turbines, generators, and engines; Most piping systems or structures whose primary function is the transport of fluids from one location to another within a system of which they are an integral part; Vessels with a nominal water-containing capacity of 120 gal or less for containing water under pressure, including those containing air that is compressed to serve as a cushion; Hot water supply storage tanks heated by steam or any other indirect means, limited to 120 gallons, 210°F, and a heat input of 200,000 BTU/hr; Department of Transportation (DOT) regulated cylinders and dewars.

exclusion area

An area which all personnel must evacuate before electron beam can be transported through (e.g. the accelerator tunnel, BSY, experiment halls, and FEL Vault).

exempt vessel

A pressure or vacuum vessel designed such that the maximum differential pressure is always below 15 psi.

Experiment Operations Envelope (EOE)

A set of explicit operations limitations for a particular experiment for the purpose of ensuring safety due to ionizing radiation concerns and compliance with established DOE guidelines.

Experiment Safety Approval Form (ESAF)

Document prepared by the Lead Scientist of a User Group that details all non-standard safety hazards associated with a User experiment. It is submitted after scientific approval of the experiment by the FEL Technical Advisory Committee (TAC) and assignment of beam time by the FEL Program Manager. (See ES&H Manual Chapter 3130 Appendix T1 FEL Experiment Safety Approval Form – Instructions.)

Experimental Safety Assessment Document (ESAD)

This document describes identified hazards of an experiment and the measures taken to eliminate, control, or mitigate them. Particular attention must be paid to the analysis and evaluation of conditions that may pose special safety problems. It includes the Safety Analysis and reviews or defines the Safety Envelope for the equipment; it references the Radiation Safety Assessment Document (RSAD), which documents the experiment operations envelope and addresses ES&H issues associated with direct and induced radioactivity. (See Typical Outline for a Preliminary Experiment Safety Assessment or an Experiment Safety Assessment Document.)


Used loosely to describe the absorption, ingestion, or inhalation of radioactive material or absorption of radiation emitted from external radiation sources (see exposure rate).

exposure incident

Any contact with blood or other potentially infectious material that results from the performance of an employee’s duties. For example, a specific exposure involving eye, mouth, other mucous membrane, parenteral, or non-intact skin contact.

exposure rate

The rate of exposure to external sources of ionizing radiation, usually measured in units of microRoentgen per hour (μR/hr). 1 Roentgen refers to the amount of photon radiation required to produce ions carrying 1 electrostatic unit of electrical charge (2.08 billion electrons) in 1 cubic centimeter of air at standard temperature and pressure.

external dose or exposure

That portion of the dose equivalent received from radiation sources outside the body (e.g., "external sources").

external standard invoked by law

A standard generated by an organization other than JSA where at least some of the provisions in the standard are required by a law or regulation.

external standard not invoked by law

A standard generated by an organization other than JSA where none of the provisions in the standard are required by a law or regulation. JSA may elect to use such a standard to further improve work processes or control hazards.

extremely hazardous substance (EHS)

Any of 406 chemicals identified by the EPA to be potentially hazardous to life and health if released. If present on-site in quantities exceeding the regulated threshold planning quantity (TPQ) the facility shall notify local Emergency Planning and Response Group (EPGs) under EPCRA. EHSs are listed in 40 CFR 355 (Appendices A and B).


Device used to irrigate and flush eyes exposed to a chemical substance. Performance requirements such as flow rates and distances to the eyewash are recommended by ANSI Standard Z358.1.



A building, portable structure, its immediate site, and/or the characteristic operations and apparatus within it.

Facility Manager

See ES&H Manual Chapter 2210 Appendix R1 Staff Assigned to ES&H Activities.


Describes a system or device that is designed to not cause harm when it fails, and the resulting condition or operational mode is safe.


(e.g. “fail-safe interlock” is a mechanism through which the failure of a single mechanical or electrical component of the interlock causes the laser system to go into, or remain in, a safe mode.)

FEL Accelerator Physics Manager

Responsible for design and operation of the accelerator for the FEL. The Manager plans and coordinates accelerator physics measurements and serves as the primary interface for any modifications, upgrades, etc., to the accelerator system.

FEL Operations Directives Supplement (FELODS)

Describe compliance with applicable guidelines, including operations programs, procedures, and documentation. (See Free Electron Laser Operations Directives Supplement to the Accelerator Operations Directive)

FEL Physics Advisory Committee (FEL PAC)

Advises the Jefferson Lab Director and the FEL Program Manager on the technical merit of a proposed user program.

FEL Technical Advisory Committee (FEL TAC)

Advises the FEL’s Facility Manager as to the feasibility and safety aspects of performing a proposed User program.

files custodian

The individual who creates and maintains a set of files.

filler metal

The metal or alloy to be added in making a welded, brazed, or soldered joint.

final control element

An energy isolation device such as a contact, relay, or switch used by the Safety Interlock System to remove power from a critical device or hazard producing equipment.

Final Safety Assessment Document (FSAD)

The document containing the results of a safety analysis for the Jefferson Lab accelerator facility pertinent to understanding the risks of the proposed undertaking. This document includes formal limits for exposures to radiation and addresses oxygen deficiency hazards.

fire alarm control panel (FACP)

An electronic console that provides a visual indication of the system status and serves as a diagnostic point for connected circuits.

fire classifications

Letter designations given to each of the major types of fires.

fire detection system

An engineered system of devices that automatically detects heat, smoke, or other products of combustion and actuates an alarm.

fire extinguisher rating

An indication of which class or classes of fires a given extinguisher may be used against.

fire suppression system

A mechanical system that detects a fire, actuates an alarm, and suppresses the fire.

fire watch

National Fire Protection Association – NFPA 101, Fire Watch states: “The assignment of a person or persons to an area for the sole purpose of notifying the fire department, the building occupants, or both of an emergency; preventing a fire from occurring; extinguishing small fires; or protecting the public from fire or life safety dangers.”


The time, in minutes or hours, that materials or assemblies have withstood a fire exposure in accordance with test procedures of NFPA 251, Standard Methods of Fire Tests of Building Construction and Materials.

Fires Class A

Ordinary combustibles like paper, wood, cloth, and many plastics

Fires Class B

Flammable liquids like oil, gasoline, paints, and solvents

Fires Class C

Electrical equipment and wiring

Fires Class D

Combustible metals like magnesium and sodium

first aid

Any one-time treatment (and any follow-up visit for the purpose of observation) of minor scratches, cuts, burns, splinters, and so forth, that does not ordinarily require medical care. Such one-time treatment and follow-up are considered first aid even if provided by a physician or registered professional personnel.

first-line protection

The primary protective system provided to prevent physical contact with energized equipment. Covers, shielding, and enclosures are examples of first-line protection.

flame arrestor

A device which inhibits the propagation of a flame.

flammable gas

Any gas or gas mixture that will ignite in a 13% or lower concentration with air at 14.7 psia and 68°F.

flammable liquid

Any liquid with a flash point below 100°F.

flammable solid

Any material, other than an explosive, liable to cause fires through friction, absorption of moisture, spontaneous chemical change, retained heat from manufacturing or processing, or that can be readily ignited and when ignited burns so vigorously and persistently as to create a serious hazard.

forklift attachment

Any modification or addition to a forklift that affects its capacity, stability, or safe operation.

functional requirements specification

The application-specific requirements of a safety interlock system. These may include: 1) reliability requirements from the hazard analysis, 2) definition of the safe state of the process, 3) process inputs to the safety interlock system and their set point and limit values, 4) response time, 5) human-machine interfaces, 6) safety interlock system outputs and their actions, 7) logic and math functions, including any permissive required for proceeding, and 8) reliability requirements to minimize spurious trips.


gas metal arc welding (GMAW)

The welding torch has a center consumable wire that maintains the arc as it melts into the weld puddle. (Also known as Manual Inert Gas (MIG) welding.

gas tungsten arc welding (GTAW)

The arc is established between a non-consumable tungsten electrode and the work piece producing the heat to melt the abutting edges of the metal to be joined; filler rod may also be used. Argon or helium is fed into the annular space around the electrode to maintain the inert environment. (Also known as tungsten inert gas (TIG) welding).

gas-tight goggles

Goggles that do not have any pores for vapor infiltration and consequently may fog up.

gauss (G)

Unit of measurement for magnetic flux density: 10,000 G = 1 Tesla (T).

General Employee Radiation Training (GERT)

The radiation safety awareness course required of everyone at Jefferson Lab who is not a radiation worker and does not take a more specialized Radiation Worker course. (See http://www.jlab.org/div_dept/train/)


Any person at Jefferson Lab whose act or process produces solid waste that qualifies as a regulated medical waste or whose act first causes a solid waste to become a regulated medical waste.

gestation period

The time from conception to birth, approximately 9 months.

Graded Approach

A method used to determining the appropriate level of analysis, management controls, documentation, or other necessary action(s) to determine where and when resources are to be allocated to ensure items and/or processes have the greatest effect upon personnel, environment, safety, health, cost, data, equipment, performance, quality and schedule. (See QA/CI Department Graded Approach Procedure)

gray (Gy)

SI unit of absorbed dose. One gray is equal to an absorbed dose of 1 joule per kilogram (100 rads).


The act of sharpening, shaping, or removing metal via abrasion; often using hand held power tools.

ground-fault circuit interrupter (GFCI)

A device that de-energizes a circuit when it detects an unsafe flow of electrical current to ground. It protects people from electrical shock.


A conducting connection, intentional or accidental, between an electrical circuit or equipment and the Earth – or some conducting body that serves as the Earth, e.g., structural steel, pipes, ground bus bars, etc.

grounding point

The high-voltage contact point, such as the terminals of a capacitor, where the grounding hook is to make contact so as to release and dissipate a circuit’s stored energy. Such a point shall be indicated by a yellow, circular marker.

grounds, electrical

Any designated conductor with adequate capacity to carry potential currents to earth. Designated conductors may be building columns or specially designed ground-network cabling, rack, or chassis ground. Cold water pipes, wireways, and conduits shall not be relied upon as electrical grounds.

grounds, massive

Large areas of metal, concrete, or wet ground that make electrical isolation difficult or impossible.


Water that fills interstices in the ground. Groundwater most commonly occurs in saturated porous strata and in fissured rock. The porous strata are usually confined by an impermeable layer or layers. Groundwater flows to wells, springs, or other points of recovery.