Radiation Control Supplement
Chapter 3 – Conduct
of Radiological Work
Measures are taken to maintain radiation exposure in controlled areas as low as is reasonably achievable (ALARA) through facility and equipment design and administrative control. The primary methods used at Jefferson Lab are physical design features (e.g., confinement of the beam to an underground enclosure, prevention of access by interlock, ventilation control, remote handling, and shielding) [§835.1001(a)].
Administrative controls and procedural requirements are used only as supplemental methods to control radiation exposure. For specific activities where use of physical design features is demonstrated to be impractical, administrative controls and procedural requirements are used to maintain radiation exposures ALARA [§835.1001(b)].
In addition to normal safety and good housekeeping practices, when working with radiation producing equipment or radioactive material, personnel exposure can be minimized by:
310-01) reducing the time spent in radiological areas - this can be done by job planning, staging all necessary tools and equipment, etc.;
310-02) maximizing the distance from the source of radiation - the work site can be moved away from the source of radiation (if possible) or persons can keep as far from the source as possible;
310-03) maximizing the amount of shielding between workers and a radiation source - if the work site cannot be moved, shielding may be used to reduce the intensity of the radiation field; and
310-04) minimizing the quantity of radioactive material in systems, components and areas through careful selection of materials, attention to operating conditions and good housekeeping.
311-01) Technical requirements for the conduct of work, including construction, modifications, operations, and maintenance and decommissioning, shall incorporate radiological criteria to ensure safety and maintain radiation exposures ALARA. To accomplish this, the design and planning processes should incorporate radiological considerations in the early planning stages. The checklist in Appendix 3A is helpful in reducing occupational radiation exposure.
311-02) At all times, the instructions given by any Radiation Control Department (RCD) representative or by this manual shall be followed. Failure to do so may result in disciplinary actions including, but not limited to: notation of infraction in the employee’s records, immediate revocation of access authorization to radiological areas (not subject to grace periods), suspension of source handling privileges, or dismissal. The final RCD recommendation shall be made by the Radiation Control Department Manager (RCM). Action on any recommendation by the RCM is the responsibility of the individual’s supervisor in consultation with the Division Management and the Human Resources Department.
312-01) Maintenance and modification plans and procedures shall be reviewed to identify and incorporate radiological requirements, such as engineered controls and dose and contamination reduction considerations. Performance of this review is the responsibility of line management, with support and concurrence from the RCD.
312-02) Trigger levels requiring formal radiological review of non-routine or complex work activities include:
a) Estimated dose greater than 250 mrem for an individual for the activity.
b) Estimated collective dose greater than 1 person-rem for a work evolution.
c) Predicted collective dose from uptakes of airborne radioactivey in excess of 100 mrem for a work evolution.
d) General area removable contamination greater than 1000 times the values in Appendix 2B.
e) Activities involving individuals working in radiation fields above 1 rem/hour.
f) Work involving significant potential for excessive radioactive releases to the environment.
312-03) For activities not exceeding the thresholds in the above paragraph, performance of the review and documentation of identified radiological requirements may be conducted as part of the Radiological Work Permit process (see Article 321).
312-04) Tasks with the potential to exceed the trigger levels in Article 312-02 shall undergo a formal, documented radiological review that is approved by the Jefferson Lab Radiation Review Panel (JRRP). They shall not exceed individual dose limits specified in Article 213. Among other considerations, this review shall consider the following as appropriate:
a) Inclusion of Radiological Control Hold Points in the technical work documents.
b) Elimination or reduction of radioactivity through system or work area decontamination.
c) Use of work processes and special tooling to reduce time in the work area.
d) Use of engineered controls to minimize the spread of contamination and generation of airborne radioactivity.
e) Specification of special radiological training or monitoring requirements.
f) Use of mock-ups for high exposure or complex tasks.
g) Engineering, design, and use of temporary shielding to reduce radiation levels.
h) Walkdown or dry-run of the activity using applicable procedures.
i) Staging and preparation of necessary materials and special tools.
j) Maximization of prefabrication and shop work.
k) Review of abnormal and emergency procedures and plans.
l) Identification of points where signatures and second party or independent verifications are required.
m) Establishment of success or completion criteria, with contingency plans to anticipate difficulties.
n) Development of a pre-job estimate of collective exposure to be incurred for the job.
o) Provisions for waste minimization and disposal.
p) Identification of potential environmental releases.
312-05) Radiological requirements identified as part of the above radiological review should be documented in the job plans, procedures or work packages.
312-06) Optimization techniques, including cost-benefit analysis, represent a fundamental part of radiological design analysis and work review. For review of minor activities with low associated doses, a cost-benefit evaluation is an intrinsic part of the engineering review process and a detailed evaluation is not necessary. For review and planning of major tasks involving higher collective dose expenditures, a detailed and documented evaluation should be performed.
313-01) With respect to routine, recurring process operations, special management attention should be directed to radiological activities that are infrequently conducted or represent first-time operations and could result in significant doses to workers. Planning for such activities should include:
a) Formal radiological review in accordance with Article 312-04.
b) Senior management review directed toward anticipation of concerns and emphasis on specification of protective measures.
c) Review and approval by the JRRP.
d) Enhanced line management and RCD oversight during the initiation and conduct of the work.
e) The extent of the formal radiological review should be commensurate with the expected and potential hazards and required controls.
313-02) Radiography may be used to check, among other things, the integrity of welds on material at Jefferson Lab. Prior to commencement of radiographic operations, applicable procedures shall be reviewed. Radiography operations shall be conducted only under written authorization that has been reviewed by the RCD. The RCD shall be notified prior to the arrival of any radiography or other radioactive sources on site, and shall verify that required radiological controls are implemented, commensurate with exposure hazards and use of the source.
314-01) Temporary shielding is defined herein as shielding used for personnel protection from radiation that may be non-destructively disassembled or removed. Some examples are: water or lead shielding around dumps; non-mortared cinder block walls; and movable shield walls or lead baffles. This list is NOT all-inclusive.
314-02) Installed temporary shielding should be visibly marked or labeled with the following or equivalent wording: “Radiation Control Department Shielding Configuration – Notice: This configuration shall not be moved or altered in any way without Radiation Control Department approval. For assistance call Radiation Control Department at 876-1743.”
314-03) Temporary shielding visibly marked or labeled as in Article 314-02 shall not be disturbed without prior concurrence of the RCD. Disturbing such shielding may result in excess radiation exposure to personnel, and may result in disciplinary action as described in Article 311-02.
314-04) The installation, use and removal of temporary shielding shall be controlled by policy and should be controlled by procedure when the work could cause radiation levels that would result in the need for a Radiation Work Permit (RWP). See Article 322.
314-05) Prior to installation, the effects of the additional weight of temporary shielding on systems and components should be evaluated and established to be within the design basis.
314-06) Installed temporary shielding should be periodically inspected and surveyed to verify effectiveness and integrity.
314-07) Radiation surveys should be performed during the alteration or removal of installed temporary shielding.
314-08) Installed temporary shielding should be periodically evaluated to assess the need for its removal or replacement with permanent shielding.
314-09) Site procedures may identify specific shielding applications, such as the shielding of low activity sources or samples that fall outside the recommendations of this Article.
315-01) Written procedures shall be developed and implemented as necessary to ensure compliance with 10 CFR 835, commensurate with the radiological hazards created by the activity and consistent with the education, training and skills of the individuals exposed to those hazards [§835.104].
315-02) Work control documents such as Temporary Operational Safety Procedures (TOSPs), Operational Safety Procedures (OSPs), RWPs, and Radiation Control Operating Procedures (RCOPs) (a special type of Standard Operating Procedure (SOP) required when the primary hazard is radiological) shall be used as necessary to support radiological control operations. These technical work documents reflect the relative level of hazard for the activity under consideration, define the prerequisites including equipment and training as necessary, and outline the steps necessary for safe work.
315-03) Work control documents used to control radiological work activities must be reviewed and approved by the RCD.
315-04) Radiological Control Hold Points must be incorporated into work control documents for steps that require action by the RCD to prevent radiation exposures in excess of Administrative Control Levels, high airborne radioactivity concentrations, or the release of radioactivity to the environment.
Airborne radioactivity control levels are discussed in Article 223. Estimates of internal exposure shall be conducted in accordance with Article 223 and should be minimized using the following hierarchy of controls:
316-01) Regarding the control of airborne radioactive material, and in any situation, to control the inhalation of such material by workers to levels that are ALARA, confinement and ventilation should be used.
316-02) Under normal conditions, releases of radioactive material to the workplace atmosphere should be avoided. Wherever practicable, engineered controls, including containment of radioactive material at the source and ventilation, should be the primary methods of minimizing airborne radioactivity and internal exposure to workers. In any case, the internal exposure of workers to radioactive material should be maintained to levels that are ALARA.
316-03) Administrative controls, including access restrictions and the use of specific work practices designed to minimize airborne contamination, should be used as secondary methods to minimize internal exposure.
316-04) When engineered and administrative controls have been applied and the potential for exposure to airborne radioactivity still exists, respiratory protection should be considered for use in limiting internal exposures. Use of respiratory protection should be considered under the following conditions:
a) Entry into posted Airborne Radioactivity Areas.
b) During breach of contaminated systems or components.
c) Work in areas or on equipment with removable contamination levels greater than 100 times the values in Appendix 2B.
316-05) The selection of respiratory protection equipment should include consideration of worker safety, comfort, and efficiency. The use of positive pressure respiratory protection devices is recommended wherever practicable to alleviate fatigue and increase comfort.
316-06) In specific situations, the use of respiratory protection may be contraindicated due to physical limitations or the potential for significantly increased external exposure. In such circumstances, specific evaluations shall be performed to determine expected exposure contributions from internal/external sources.
In every case, consideration should be given to the effect of the use of respiratory devices (with respect to decreased worker efficiency and safety) on the total dose anticipated during an activity, and efforts should be made to keep the total dose ALARA.
The Radiological Work Permit (RWP) is a work control document used to establish radiological controls to maintain ALARA for intended work activities. The RWP informs workers of area radiological conditions and entry requirements and provides a mechanism to relate worker exposure to specific work activities. The RWP should include the following information:
321-01) Description of work
321-02) Work area radiological conditions
321-03) Dosimetry requirements
321-04) Pre-job briefing requirements, as applicable
321-05) Training requirements for entry
321-06) Personnel protective equipment (PPE) requirements
321-07) RCD coverage requirements and stay time controls, as applicable
321-08) Limiting radiological conditions that may void the RWP
321-09) Special dose or contamination reduction considerations
321-010) Special personnel monitoring considerations
321-011) Technical work document number, as applicable
321-012) Unique identifying number
321-013) Date of issue and expiration
321-014) Authorizing signatures
322 Use of Radiological Work Permits
Written work authorizations (typically implemented through RWPs) shall be used for entry to and work within radiological areas. Dose tracking through a radiation work permit should be established whenever the area which will be occupied by the trunk of a worker’s body (usually 30 centimeters (1 foot) from the work piece) is greater than 25 mrem/hr, the total estimated dose to a worker exceeds 25 mrem in a work shift, or the work piece exceeds 250 mR/h on contact. Dose tracking may be employed at the discretion of the RCD at levels below these thresholds. RCD personnel should be vigilant for situations where extended periods of work are anticipated, and individual cumulative doses might exceed a significant fraction of a design goal during a dosimetry issuance period. Worker doses shall be evaluated each monitoring period for indications of such occurrences.
322-01) RWPs shall be used to control the following activities:
c) Handling of materials with removable contamination that exceeds the values of Appendix 2B: Weighting Factors For Organs And Tissues.
d) Any process identified by the RCD to need an RWP, such as first-time activities
322-02) Job-specific RWPs shall be used to control non-routine operations or work in areas with changing radiological conditions. The job-specific RWP shall remain in effect only for the duration of the job. If the job is repetitive, a standing RWP may be used.
322-03) General RWPs may be used to control minor radiological work activities, tours, and inspections in areas with well-characterized and stable radiological conditions. General RWPs should not be approved for periods longer than 1 year.
322-04) Radiological surveys should be reviewed routinely to evaluate the adequacy of RWP requirements. RWPs shall be updated if radiological conditions change to the extent that protective requirements need modification.
322-05) RWPs should be posted at the access point(s) to the applicable radiological work area, and shall be made available at the worksite.
322-06) Workers shall affirm by signature (including electronic signatures) that they have read, understand and shall comply with the RWP prior to initial entry to the area and after any revisions to the RWP.
322-07) Worker pocket or electronic dosimeter readings should be recorded in a format that identifies and provides linkage to the applicable RWP.
323 Radiological Work Permit Preparation
323-01) The responsibility for ensuring adequate planning and control of work activities resides with line management. The lead work group responsible for the planned activity or for the area should initiate the preparation of the RWP.
323-02) RWPs shall be reviewed and approved by the RCD.
323-03) The RWP should be based on current radiological surveys and anticipated radiological conditions.
323-04) The RWP shall be approved by the supervisor responsible for the work or area and the appropriate Radiological Control supervisor (work-area supervisory approval may be waived in the case of general or standing RWPs encompassing multiple work areas and work groups). Revisions or extensions to RWPs shall be subject to the same approval process.
324-01) At a minimum, pre-job briefings shall be held prior to the conduct of work anticipated to exceed the trigger levels identified in Article 312-02.
324-02) At a minimum, the pre-job briefing should include:
a) Scope of work to be performed
b) Radiological conditions of the workplace
c) Procedural and RWP requirements
d) Special radiological control requirements
e) Radiologically limiting conditions, such as contamination or radiation levels that may void the RWP
f) Radiological Control Hold Points
g) Communications and coordination with other groups
h) Provisions for housekeeping and final cleanup
i) Emergency response provisions.
324-03) Pre-job briefings should be conducted by the cognizant work supervisor and a knowledgeable RCD representative.
324-04) All persons utilizing an RWP requiring a pre-job briefing shall be briefed prior to using the RWP.
324-05) A summary of topics discussed and attendance at the pre-job briefing should be documented.
For the purposes of this document, personal protective equipment (alternately, personnel protective equipment) consists of clothing, respiratory protection equipment, portable containments, and other such devices.
325-01) Personnel shall wear protective clothing during the following activities:
a) Handling of materials or entering areas with removable contamination in excess of Appendix 2B levels.
b) As directed by the RCD or as required by an RWP.
325-02) Protective equipment designated for radiological control should be:
a) Marked in accordance with Article 481.
b) Used only for radiological control purposes.
Removable Contamination Levels
(1 To 10 Times
Appendix 2B Values)
(10 To 100 Times
Appendix 2B Values)
(> 100 Times
Appendix 2B Values)
Full set of PC
Full set of PC
Full set of PC, double gloves, double shoe covers
Full set of PC, work gloves
Double set of PC, work gloves
Double set of PC, work gloves
Work with pressurized or large volume liquids, closed system breach
Full set of non-permeable PC, face protection
Double set of PC (outer set non-permeable), rubber boots, face protection
Double set of PC and non-permeable outer clothing, rubber boots, face protection
1. For hands-off tours or inspections in areas with removable contamination levels 1 to 10 times the values in Appendix 2B, combinations of lab coats, shoe covers and gloves may be used instead of full PC.
2. In cases where the contaminated area is too small for the entire body to enter, or when working in glove boxes, fume hoods, or other devices with engineered protection, various partial protective clothing combinations may be used, and should be specified in work authorizing documents.
325-04) The use of lab coats as radiological protective clothing is appropriate for limited applications such as those discussed in Appendix 3B where the potential for personal contamination is limited to the hands, arms, and upper front portion of the body. Coveralls should be used as protective clothing for performing physical work activities in Contamination Areas.
325-05) Instructions for donning and removing protective clothing should be posted at the appropriate areas for routinely accessed Contamination Areas.
325-06) The use of PPE or clothing for radiological controls beyond that authorized by the RCD may detract from work performance and is contrary to ALARA principles and waste minimization practices. Such use should be avoided.
Personnel entry control shall be maintained for each radiological area. The degree of personnel entry control shall be commensurate with existing and potential radiological hazards within the area.
The RCD incorporates entry and exit requirements into work control documents, Radiological Work Permits (RWPs) and Radiological Control Operating Procedures (RCOPs), to ensure that entry control requirements are met. These and other administrative procedures include actions essential to ensure the effectiveness and operability of interlocks, barricades, devices, alarms, locks, and other devices used to control entry and exit at radiological areas.
Under no circumstance shall control(s) be installed at any radiological area exit that would prevent rapid evacuation of personnel under emergency conditions [§835.501(e), §835.502(d)].
NOTE: The requirements in subparts F (Entry Control Program) and G (Posting and Labeling) of 10 CFR 835 do not apply to radioactive material transportation by DOE or a DOE contractor if conducted:
· Under the continuous observation and control of an individual who is knowledgeable of and implements required exposure control measures, or
· In accordance with Department of Transportation regulations or DOE orders that govern such movements.
Entry controls in this section apply to accessible areas. As defined in Article 238, Exclusion Areas are not accessible areas. Beam enclosure areas that are configured with a certified Personnel Safety System are exclusion areas when the beam or RF power is operable.
Successful completion of General Employee Radiological Training or the equivalent as approved by the RCD is required for unescorted entry into Controlled Areas. Untrained visitors must be escorted at all times while in Controlled Areas. Visitors shall not enter into radiological areas without the express permission of the RCD.
Due to the small number and size of Contamination Areas normally present at Jefferson Lab, Radiological Buffer Areas (RBA) are not typically employed. To a significant degree, the Radiologically Controlled Area (RCA) designation used at Jefferson Lab serves the same purpose as the RBA. Radiological Buffer Areas should be considered for use around readily accessible contamination and high contamination areas that persist for long periods (more than a few weeks) and have reasonably large total surface areas (e.g. 100 square feet). Establishing RBAs for small or infrequently entered contamination areas may not be consistent with the ALARA process.
When implemented, the following guidance applies to RBAs.
332-01) Minimum requirements for unescorted entry into Radiological Buffer Areas shall include the following:
a) Radiological Worker I training.
b) Personnel dosimetry, as defined by governing work control documents
332-02) Personnel who exit a Radiological Buffer Area containing Contamination Areas, High Contamination Areas, or Airborne Radioactivity Areas should monitor themselves as specified in Article 338.
General Employee Radiological Training is required for unescorted entry into Radioactive Material Areas. Other requirements may apply depending on the use and quantity of the radioactive material and the equivalent dose rate in the area. These requirements will be contained in the applicable postings for the area.
Radiologically Controlled Areas (RCAs) are areas where radiological controls are implemented. Routine occupancy in RCAs may result in a dose greater than 100 mrem per year to an individual. Unescorted access to an RCA normally requires Radiological Worker-I training and a properly worn personal dosimeter (OSL badge). RCAs may or may not contain Radiological Areas.
334-01) A “radiological area” is defined as a Radiation Area, High Radiation Area, Very High Radiation Area, Contamination Area, High Contamination Area, or an Airborne Radioactivity Area. Personnel entry control shall be maintained for each radiological area [§835.501(a)]. The degree of personnel entry control shall be commensurate with existing and potential radiological hazards within the area [§835.501(b)]. One or more of the following methods shall be used to ensure personnel entry control:
a) Signs and barricades;
b) Control devices on entrances;
c) Conspicuous visual and/or audible alarms;
d) Locked entrance ways; or
e) Administrative controls [§835.501(c)].
334-02) Written authorizations, such as RWPs, shall be required to control entry into and perform work within radiological areas. These authorizations shall specify radiation protection measures commensurate with the existing and potential hazards [§835.501(d)].
334-03) Minimum requirements for unescorted entry into Radiation Areas shall include the following:
a) Satisfactory completing of Radiological Worker I training
b) Worker's signature on the RWP, as applicable
c) Properly worn personnel dosimetry.
334-04) Minimum requirements for entry into High Radiation Areas shall include the following:
a) The area shall be monitored as necessary during access to determine the exposure rates to which the individuals are exposed [§835.501(a)(1)]; and
b) Satisfactory completing of Radiological Worker I Training,
c) Worker's signature on the RWP,
d) Properly worn personnel dosimeter, and
e) Supplemental dosimeter or other means capable of providing an immediate estimate of the individual’s integrated equivalent dose to the whole body during the entry [§835.502(a)(2)].
334-05) Physical controls to prevent inadvertent or unauthorized access to High and Very High Radiation Areas shall be maintained in accordance with 10 CFR 835.502 at each entrance or access point to a high radiation area where radiation levels exist such that an individual could exceed an equivalent dose to the whole body of 1 rem in any one hour at 30 centimeters from the source or from any surface that the radiation penetrates [§835.502(b)].
334-06) In addition to the physical controls specified above, the minimum requirements for entry into High Radiation Areas where it is likely that a worker’s whole body will be exposed to a dose rate exceeding 1 rem/h shall include:
a) A determination of the worker’s current exposure, based on primary and supplemental dosimeter readings
b) Pre-job briefing, as applicable
c) Review and determination by the RCD regarding the required level of Radiological Control Technologist coverage
334-07) Prior to the first entry into any area where a source could create a Very High Radiation Area, a survey shall be made after the source has been secured or shielded to verify the very high radiation field has been terminated [§835.502(c)]. For accelerator enclosure entry after shutdown, a radiation survey begins upon entry to locate radiological areas. This survey also serves as an indicator that the accelerator is shut down and prompt radiation producing operations have terminated. In some cases, such as when access is restricted to an area where activation of accelerator components is negligible, alarming fixed instrumentation or personnel electronic alarming pocket dosimeters may be used to indicate that prompt radiation production has terminated.
334-08) The Crew Chief and the RCD should be notified prior to personnel entry to areas where operational or system changes made by operations personnel could result in significantly increased area dose rates.
334-09) The number, issue, and use of keys shall be strictly controlled where locked entryways are used to control access to High and Very High Radiation Areas. The loss of any key for these areas shall be immediately addressed by the RCD [§835.502(c)].
334-010) Inspections of the physical access controls to accessible High and Very High Radiation Areas shall be made at appropriate intervals to verify controls are adequate to prevent unauthorized entry [§835.502(c)].
335 Contamination and Airborne Radioactivity Areas
335-01) Minimum requirements for entry into Contamination Areas shall include the following:
a) Radiological Worker II training
b) Worker’s signature on the RWP, as applicable
c) Protective clothing
d) Personnel dosimetry, as appropriate.
335-02) Work in High Contamination or Airborne Radioactivity Areas, when the airborne activity is due to particulate radioactivity should also include the following:
a) An evaluation of the need for respiratory protection equipment
b) Pre-job briefings
335-03) Personnel exiting Contamination, High Contamination, or Airborne Radioactivity Areas (for particulate activity) shall use appropriate monitoring to detect and prevent the spread of contamination [§835.1102(d)]. The following shall be performed by individuals exiting radiological areas established to control removable contamination and/or airborne radioactivity as appropriate:
a) Remove protective clothing as specified in Appendix 3B
b) Monitor to detect personnel contamination in accordance with Article 338
c) Tools or equipment being removed from the area are subject to the same monitoring requirements, and if applicable, shall be monitored for release in accordance with Article 421.
335-04) Exit points from Contamination, High Contamination, or Airborne Radioactivity Areas should include the following, taking into account the size, configuration and duration of existence of the area:
a) Step-off pad located outside the exit point, contiguous with the area boundary
b) Step-off pads maintained free of radioactive contamination
c) Labeled containers inside the area boundary for the collection of protective clothing and equipment
d) Contamination monitoring equipment located as close to the step-off pad as background radiation levels permit.
335-05) Multiple step-off pads should be used at the exits from High Contamination Areas. Use of multiple step-off pads is described in Appendix 3B.
335-06) Protective clothing and monitoring requirements specific to benchtop work, laboratory fume hoods, sample stations and gloveboxes are identified in Article 347.
336 Visitor Entry Restrictions
336-01) Signs and training identify area entry requirements and access restrictions for visitors.
336-02) Visitors with a demonstrated need to enter the following areas may be allowed access if such access is controlled with a combination of training and the use of escorts trained for the specific area:
a) Radiation Areas
b) Radioactive Material Areas
336-03) Visitors shall be prevented from entering High Radiation Areas and Very High Radiation Areas and shall be prohibited access to Contamination, High Contamination, and Airborne Radioactivity Areas.
336-04) Training requirements for visitors are identified in Article 622.
The following measures should be used to prevent the spread of contamination from Contamination Areas and Airborne Radioactivity Areas:
337-01) Use solid barriers to enclose areas wherever practicable
337-02) Mark and secure items such as hoses and cords that cross the boundary
337-03) Control and direct airflow from areas of lesser to greater removable contamination
337-04) Use engineered controls and containment devices such as glove bags, gloveboxes, tents, and high efficiency particulate air filtering system (HEPA)–filtered ventilation.
338 Monitoring for Personnel Contamination
Jefferson Lab shall use appropriate monitoring to detect and prevent the spread of contamination. Monitoring shall be performed by individuals exiting radiological areas established to control removable contamination and/or particulate airborne radioactivity.
338-01) Personnel shall perform a whole body survey under the following conditions:
a) Immediately upon exiting Contamination, High Contamination, and Airborne Radioactivity Areas (where established for particulate airborne radioactivity)
b) As directed by the RWP or the RCD
338-02) In addition to the above, personnel exiting a Radiological Buffer Area containing Contamination, High Contamination or Airborne Radioactivity Areas should, at a minimum, perform a hand and foot frisk. This frisk is optional if the Radiological Buffer Area exit is immediately adjacent to the location where the exiting individual has already performed a whole body survey.
338-03) Where monitoring cannot be performed at the exit from Contamination, High Contamination, or Airborne Radioactivity Areas due to high background radiation levels, personnel shall:
a) Remove all protective equipment and clothing at the exit
b) Proceed directly to the nearest designated monitoring station
c) Conduct a whole body survey.
338-04) Personnel monitoring shall be performed after removal of protective clothing and prior to washing or showering.
338-06) Personal items, such as notebooks, papers and flashlights, shall be subject to the same monitoring requirements as the person carrying them.
338-07) Instructions for personnel monitoring should be posted adjacent to personnel monitoring instruments or monitors.
Authorization is required to perform work within radiological areas. This authorization is contained in Radiological Work Permits (RWPs) and other work control documents that include specific radiation protection measures.
341-01) Radiological work activities shall be conducted as specified by the RWP and other work control documents.
341-02) Prerequisite conditions, such as tag-outs and system isolation, shall be verified in accordance with the work control documents before work is initiated.
342-01) Contamination levels caused by ongoing work shall be monitored and should be maintained ALARA. Work should be curtailed and decontamination performed at pre-established levels, taking into account worker exposure.
342-02) Tools and equipment should be inspected to verify operability before being brought into Contamination, High Contamination, or Airborne Radioactivity Areas.
342-03) The use of radiologically clean tools or equipment in Contamination, High Contamination, or Airborne Radioactivity Areas should be minimized (e.g., by the implementation of a contaminated tool crib). When such use is necessary, tools or equipment with complex or inaccessible areas should be wrapped or sleeved to minimize contamination.
342-04) Engineered controls, such as containment devices, portable or auxiliary ventilation and temporary shielding, should be installed in accordance with the technical work documents and inspected prior to use.
342-05) Hoses and cables entering the work area should be secured to prevent the spread of contamination or safety hazards.
342-06) The identity of components and systems should be verified prior to work.
342-07) Work activities and shift changes should be scheduled to prevent idle time in radiological areas.
342-08) Where practicable, parts and components should be removed to areas with low dose rates to perform work.
342-09) Upon identification of radiological concerns, such as inappropriate work controls or procedural deficiencies, workers shall immediately report the concern to line supervision or the RCD.
342-010) Requirements for area cleanup should be included in the work control documents. Work activities should not be considered complete until support material and equipment have been removed and the area has been returned to at least pre-work status.
342-011) To minimize intakes of radioactive material by personnel, smoking, eating, or chewing should not be permitted in Radiation Areas, High Radiation Areas, Contamination Areas, High Contamination Areas, potentially contaminated areas, Airborne Radioactivity Areas, or Radioactive Material Areas.
343-01) Radiological Control personnel shall document abnormal radiological situations, and should maintain logs on work controlled by work control documents such as RWPs, which include the status of work activities and other relevant information.
343-02) During continuous or extended daily operations, oncoming RCD personnel should review logs and receive a turnover briefing from the personnel they are relieving.
343-03) Communication systems required by the RWP or work control document should be checked for operability before being brought into the work area and periodically during work.
343-04) Workers shall keep RCD personnel informed of the status of work activities that affect radiological conditions.
344-01) As part of their normal work review, radiological control and work supervisors should periodically review ongoing jobs to ensure prescribed radiological controls are being implemented.
344-02) RCD personnel should conduct frequent tours and inspections of the workplace to review the adequacy of radiological work practices, posting and area controls.
344-03) During the performance of jobs for which a pre-job dose estimate was made, the RCD, in cooperation with line management, should periodically monitor collective dose accumulation and compare it with the pre-job dose estimate. Differences should be reviewed to identify causes and assess the need for corrective actions.
345 Stop Radiological Work Authority
345-01) Radiological Control Technologists (RCT) and their supervisors, line supervision, and any worker through their supervisor, has the authority and responsibility to stop radiological work activities for any of the following reasons:
a) Inadequate radiological controls,
b) Radiological controls not being implemented, or
c) Radiological Control Hold Point not being satisfied.
345-02) Stop radiological work authority shall be exercised in a justifiable and responsible manner (e.g., barring access to the area, revoking the RWP, or revoking individual training).
345-03) Once radiological work has been stopped, it shall not be resumed until proper radiological control has been reestablished.
345-04) Resumption of radiological work requires the approval of the line manager responsible for the work and the RCM or designee.
346-01) An emergency in which there is a real or potential exposure to radiation or release of radioactive material in excess of applicable administrative control levels or limits is considered to be a radiation emergency. A radiation emergency can occur as a result of accelerator operations or as a result of the use or handling of radioactive material, or radioactive sources.
346-02) In the event of a radiation emergency that results from accelerator operations, the Crew Chief shall be notified at the Machine Control Center, ext. 7047 or ext. 7050. The Crew Chief shall then notify the appropriate personnel as indicated in the Jefferson Lab ES&H Manual (including the RCD) using the following information.
RCD Notification Information (as of May 2010), current information may be found at http://www.jlab.org/accel/RadCon/personnel.html.
Vashek Vylet (RCM)
24 Hour Cell Phone757-876-1743
In the event of a radiation emergency, the RCD, as listed above, shall be notified.
346-03) Response to increasing or unanticipated radiation levels, as identified by a supplemental dosimeter or Area Radiation Monitor Alarm, should include the following actions:
a) Stop work activities,
b) Alert others,
c) All personnel immediately exit the area, and
d) Notify the RCD.
346-04) Response to personnel contamination should include the following actions:
a) Remain in the immediate area,
b) Notify RCD personnel, and
c) Take actions that may be available to minimize cross-contamination, such as putting a glove on a contaminated hand.
346-05) Response to a spill of radioactive material should include the following actions:
a) Stop or secure the operation causing the spill,
b) Warn others in the area,
c) Isolate the spill area if possible,
d) Minimize individual exposure and contamination,
e) Secure unfiltered ventilation, and
f) Notify RCD personnel.
g) For spills involving highly toxic chemicals, workers should immediately exit the area without attempting to stop or secure the spill. They should then promptly notify the Lab Chemical Assistance Team and RCD personnel by calling the guard at x4444, then calling x7863.
347-01) Control of material and equipment
a) Except as provided in paragraphs (b) and (c) of this section, material and equipment in Contamination Areas, High Contamination Areas, and Airborne Radioactivity Areas shall not be released to an area outside of a Contamination Area, High Contamination Area, or Airborne Radioactivity Area if:
1) Removable surface contamination levels on accessible surfaces exceed the removable surface contamination values specified in Appendix 2B; or
2) Process knowledge suggests that the removable surface contamination levels on inaccessible surfaces are likely to exceed the removable surface contamination values specified in Appendix 2B [§835.1101(a)].
b) Material and equipment exceeding the removable surface contamination values specified in Appendix 2B may be conditionally released for movement on-site from one radiological area for immediate placement in another radiological area only if appropriate monitoring is performed and appropriate controls for the movement are established and exercised [§835.1101(b)].
c) Material and equipment with fixed contamination levels that exceed the total surface contamination values specified in Appendix 2B may be released for use in Controlled Areas outside of radiological areas only under the following conditions:
1) Removable surface contamination levels are below the removable surface contamination values specified in Appendix 2B; and
2) The material or equipment is routinely monitored and clearly marked or labeled to alert personnel of the contaminated status [§835.1101(c)].
347-02) Control of areas
a) Appropriate controls shall be maintained and verified which prevent the inadvertent transfer of removable contamination to locations outside of radiological areas under normal operating conditions [§835.1102(a)].
b) Any area in which contamination levels exceed the values specified in Appendix 2B shall be controlled in a manner commensurate with the physical and chemical characteristics of the contaminant, the radionuclides present, and the fixed and removable surface contamination levels [§835.1102(b)]
c) Areas accessible to individuals where the measured total surface contamination levels exceed, but the removable surface contamination levels are less than, corresponding surface contamination values specified in Appendix 2B shall be controlled as follows when located outside of radiological areas:
1) The area shall be routinely monitored to ensure the removable surface contamination level remains below the removable surface contamination values specified in Appendix 2B; and
2) The area shall be conspicuously marked to warn individuals of the contaminated status [§835.1102(c)].
d) Individuals exiting contamination, high contamination, or airborne radioactivity areas shall be monitored, as appropriate, for the presence of surface contamination [§835.1102(d)].
e) Protective clothing shall be required for entry to areas in which removable contamination exists at levels exceeding the removable surface contamination values specified in Appendix 2B [§835.1102(e)].
The following requirements are applicable to radiological work in localized benchtop areas, laboratory fume hoods, sample stations and glovebox operations located in areas that are otherwise contamination free when contamination levels associated with the operations exceed or are likely to exceed Appendix 2B values. These practices are also applicable to work in isolated areas or components whose physical configuration creates a similar work environment, such as the interior of a target chamber having locally contaminated targets.
348-01) An RWP shall be issued to control radiological work in localized benchtop areas, laboratory fume hoods, sample sinks, and gloveboxes.
348-02) The following controls apply to localized bench top and laboratory fume hood operations (these controls apply to laboratory bench-top sample preparation/analysis when the expected total activity in the sample(s) is high enough to produce an area exceeding Appendix 2B values in the event of a spill):
a) Protective clothing shall, at a minimum, include lab coats and gloves. Gloves should be secured at the wrist as necessary.
b) Shoe covers should be considered based on the potential for floor contamination.
c) Workers should periodically monitor their hands during work.
d) Upon completion of work or prior to leaving the area, workers shall monitor those areas of their body that are potentially contaminated. At a minimum, this includes hands, arms, and front portions of the body. Workers should perform a whole body survey.
e) Install temporary shielding as appropriate.
f) When finished with operations, decontaminate and remove equipment.
348-03) The following controls apply to sample station operations:
a) Protective clothing shall, at a minimum, include gloves. Gloves should be secured at the wrist as necessary.
b) Shoe covers should be considered based on the potential for floor contamination.
c) If there is a potential for splashing or airborne radioactivity, such as when taking pressurized samples, additional controls such as rubber aprons, face shields, full protective clothing (PCs), or respiratory protection should be instituted.
d) Workers should periodically monitor their hands during work.
e) Upon completion of work or prior to leaving the area, workers shall monitor those areas of their body that are potentially contaminated. At a minimum, this includes hands, arms, and front portions of the body. Workers should perform a whole body survey.
348-04) The following controls apply to glovebox operations:
a) Gloveboxes should be inspected for integrity and operability prior to use.
b) Gloveboxes should be marked with, or survey measurements should be posted to identify, whole body and extremity dose rates, as appropriate.
c) Gloves in addition to those integral to the glove box should be worn when contamination levels in the glove box may exceed 100 times Appendix 2B values.
d) Shoe covers should be considered based on the potential for floor contamination.
e) Workers should periodically monitor their hands during work.
f) Upon completion of work or prior to leaving the area, workers shall monitor those areas of their body that are potentially contaminated. At a minimum, this includes hands, arms, and feet. Workers should perform a whole body survey.
Hot particles are small, discrete, highly radioactive particles capable of causing extremely high doses to a localized area in a short period of time. Hot particle contamination may be present or be generated when contaminated systems are opened or when operations such as machining, cutting, or grinding are performed on highly radioactive materials.
349-01) A hot particle is defined at Jefferson Lab as a small radioactive particle, possibly not visible to the eye, having an emission rate of at least 10,000 disintegrations per second total beta-gamma activity.
349-02) Measures for controlling hot particles, as identified in items 03 through 07 of this Article, should be implemented under the following conditions:
a) Upon identification of hot particles,
b) During new or non-routine operations with a high potential for hot particles, based on previous history, or
c) Upon direction of the RCD.
349-03) When practicable, the use of containment tents, glove boxes, or other engineered methods should be applied to control of hot particles, as applicable.
349-04) Areas or operations with the potential for hot particle contamination should be surveyed in accordance with Article 553.
349-05) Contamination Area postings should be annotated to specifically identify the presence of hot particles.
349-06) Access to hot particle areas should be controlled by a job-specific RWP. The following controls should be considered for inclusion on the RWP:
a) Periodic personnel monitoring during the work activity, at a frequency based on the potential magnitude of personnel exposure,
b) Periodic surveys at boundaries and areas surrounding the hot particle area, at increased frequency during periods of work,
c) Additional PPE and clothing,
d) Direct RCD coverage during work and/or assistance during protective clothing removal, and
e) Use of sticky pads or multiple step-off pads.
349-07) PPE and clothing used in hot particle areas should be segregated from other radiological protective equipment and clothing during laundering and surveyed prior to reuse.
349-08) Response to hot particle skin contamination of personnel should include the following:
a) Immediate removal and retention of the hot particle for subsequent analysis,
b) Analysis of the particle,
c) Assessment of worker dose, and
d) Evaluation of work control adequacy.
During the conduct of radiological work and the handling of radioactive materials, abnormal events may occur that could indicate a weakness or area of programmatic breakdown of radiological controls. Prompt, consistent gathering of facts related to such events is required to satisfy reporting and investigation requirements and to formulate corrective actions to prevent recurrence. In addition, successful performance or completion of unique activities should be evaluated to identify and incorporate appropriate lessons learned.
Analysis of the facts should reveal areas where improvements can be made or identify methods to prevent the recurrence of undesired results.
Critiques are meetings of the personnel knowledgeable about an event (either a success or an abnormal event) to document a chronological listing of the facts. The purpose of the critique is not to assign blame, but to establish and record the facts and develop lessons learned.
351-01) Critiques should be conducted for successes and abnormal events.
351-02) Critique leaders should be trained in the required elements of the critique process and the appropriate methods of conducting and controlling the critique.
351-03) Critique meetings should be conducted as soon as practicable after the event or situation is stabilized, or after a successful evolution is completed. Critiques of abnormal events should be conducted preferably before involved personnel leave for the day.
351-04) Critiques and investigations of unusual events should be conducted in accordance with Jefferson Lab ES&H Manual Chapter 5200 Event Investigation and Causal Analysis Process.
352-01) Performance should be reviewed after completion of non-routine radiological work.
352-02) As appropriate to the work in question, post-job reviews should include reviews of:
a) Total and individual doses compared to pre-job estimates
b) Efficacy of the radiological controls implemented for the work
c) Any adverse events occurring during the work
d) Conflicts between radiological safety requirements and other safety requirements
e) Opportunities to improve performance or efficiency during repeated or similar work
f) Significant differences between expected and actual radiological conditions or other issues affecting the work
g) Worker input regarding possible improvements in radiological safety practices for repeated or similar work.
Lessons learned are available from post-job reviews and reports of past radiological events on site and at other facilities. See the Lessons Learned Program for details of the laboratory’s program. The RCD, in conjunction with line management, should evaluate lessons learned, provide prompt distribution, and incorporate the lessons into the radiological control program, the radiological training program, and related operations. To ensure wide distribution to Jefferson Lab personnel, lessons learned should be submitted on a Notable Event Report. Training for RCTs and other RCD staff should include lessons learned from Jefferson Lab and other facilities with similar radiological concerns. Jefferson Lab RCD personnel should periodically meet with other radiological professionals from other DOE accelerators to discuss lessons learned.
and Control of Facilities
Measures shall be taken to maintain ALARA radiation exposure in Controlled Areas through facility and equipment design and administrative control. The primary methods used shall be physical design features (e.g., confinement, ventilation, remote handling, and shielding). Administrative controls and procedural requirements shall be employed only as supplemental methods to control radiation exposure [§835.1001].
361-01) During the design of new facilities or modification of existing facilities, the following objectives shall be adopted:
a) Optimization methods shall be used to assure that occupational exposure is maintained ALARA in developing and justifying facility design and physical controls [§835.1002(a)].
b) The design objective for controlling personnel exposure to a radiological worker from external sources of radiation in areas of continuous occupational occupancy (2000 hours per year) shall be to maintain exposure levels below an average of 0.5 mrem (5 mSv) per hour and as far below this average as is reasonably achievable. The Jefferson Lab design goal for a radiologically controlled area is such that a radiological worker will not receive a dose in excess of 250 mrem in a year [§835.1002(b)].
c) The design objectives for exposure rates for potential exposure to a radiological worker where occupancy differs from the above shall be ALARA and shall not exceed 20% of the applicable standards in 10 CFR 835.202 [§835.1002(b)].
361-02) For specific activities where use of physical design features is demonstrated to be impractical, administrative controls and procedural requirements shall be used to maintain radiation exposures ALARA [§835.1001(b)].
361-03) The design objective for control of airborne radioactive material shall be to avoid releases to the workplace atmosphere. In the event that is not feasible, exposure to workers shall be kept ALARA through use of ventilation and confinement [§835.1002(c)].
361-04) The design or modification of a facility and the selection of materials shall include features that facilitate operations, maintenance, decontamination, and decommissioning [§835.1002(d)].
362 Control Considerations and Procedures
362-01) The ALARA process will be utilized for personnel exposures to ionizing radiation [§835.1003(b)].
362-02) Other performance goals and indicators appropriate to design and control procedures should be monitored, such as:
a) PPE requirements and practices to accommodate other hazards on the site (i.e., non-essential radiation protective equipment that potentially worsens a coincident hazard).
b) Use of respiratory protection as normal conduct of operation due to lack of engineered controls and temporary nature of the work.
c) Monitoring and survey frequency for inactive facilities or large areas that are infrequently occupied.
Inclement weather or other environmental conditions may disrupt radiological controls. If that occurs, the following actions should be considered:
363-01) The use of covers, wind screens and runoff collection basins to preclude the inadvertent spread of radioactive material.
363-02) Provisions for worksite personnel to assemble and be monitored prior to release or reestablishment of work.
363-03) Evaluation of work area to determine if a need exists for modified work controls or decontamination.
364 Other Workplace Hazards
Radiological controls should be implemented in a balanced way to ensure that protection from all workplace hazards can be implemented. Other hazards to consider include, but are not limited to:
· General construction hazards
· Flammable materials
· Reactive chemicals
· Heat stress
· Chemical exposures
· Energized electrical equipment
· Biological hazards
· Rotating equipment
· Noise and vibration
· Restricted vision with respirator use
· Increased stay times due to PPE