Radiation Control Supplement
Chapter 4 – Radioactive Materials
Storage, and Control
For the purposes of controlling radiation exposure from radioactive material to workers, the public and the environment, radioactive material is defined as follows:
1. Any material or equipment exceeding the contamination limits in 10 CFR 835 Appendix D.
2. Any material or equipment having volumetric activity above background levels, as determined by approved Jefferson Lab methods applicable to the material.
3. Any sealed or unsealed source manufactured, obtained, or retained for the purpose of utilizing the emitted radiation.
4. Liquids having detectable radioactivity as determined by approved measurement methods.
5. Containers of compressed gases known to contain radioactivity above background levels.
Radioactive material does not include natural background radioactivity in the environment or building materials, radioactivity in consumer products (including welding rods and grinding wheels), or any other commonly available consumer/industrial product specifically exempt from licensing by NRC.
411-01) Materials, including liquids, which have been present within a CEBAF or FEL beam enclosure during electron beam operations shall be considered potentially activated, unless specifically excepted in a Technical Basis Document approved by the RCM. Such exceptions should be based on process knowledge and historical survey information. Potentially activated material shall be considered radioactive until:
a) Surveyed or analyzed using approved procedures and determined to be free of radioactivity above background, or
b) Determined to be free of added radioactivity through a process knowledge assessment approved by the RCM.
411-02) Materials in Contamination, High Contamination or Airborne Radioactivity Areas shall be considered radioactive material until surveyed and released. These survey and release requirements do not apply to Airborne Radioactivity Areas where only gaseous, short-lived (half-life of 1 hour or less) activation products are present.
411-03) Except for sealed and unsealed sources, radioactive materials located within Contamination, High Contamination or Airborne Radioactivity Areas or installed in the beamline do not require specific labeling or packaging.
412-01) Except as provided in 412-02, each item or container of radioactive material shall bear a durable, clearly visible label bearing the standard radiation warning trefoil and the words “Caution, Radioactive Material” or “Danger, Radioactive Material.” The “Danger” heading should be used when an individual exposed to, using, or handling the material could receive in one hour an equivalent dose exceeding any applicable administrative control level. The label shall also provide sufficient information to permit individuals handling, using, or working in the vicinity of the items or containers to take precautions to avoid or control exposures [§835.605].
412-02) Exceptions to labeling requirements.
a) Items and containers may be excepted from the radioactive material labeling requirements of Article 412-01 when:
1) Used, handled, or stored in areas posted and controlled in accordance with this chapter, and sufficient information is provided to permit individuals to take precautions to avoid or control exposures; or
2) The quantity of radioactive material is less than one tenth of the values specified in 10 CFR 835 Appendix E and less than 0.1 Ci; or
3) Packaged, labeled, and marked in accordance with the regulations of the Department of Transportation or Department or Energy (DOE) Orders governing radioactive material transportation; or
4) Inaccessible, or accessible only to individuals authorized to handle or use them, or to work in the vicinity; or
5) Installed in manufacturing, process, or other equipment, such as piping, tanks, and accelerator beamline components [§835.606(a)].
b) Radioactive material labels applied to sealed radioactive sources may be excepted from the color specifications of Article 412-03 [§835.606(b)].
412-03) Labels shall have a yellow background with a black or magenta standard radiation symbol [§835.601(a)]. Lettering shall be black or magenta. Magenta is preferred.
412-04) Labels or tags should include contact radiation levels, removable surface contamination levels (specified as alpha or beta-gamma), dates surveyed, surveyor’s name and description of items.
412-05) Packaged radioactive material should have the label visible through the package or affixed to the outside.
412-06) Radioactive material tags and labels shall only be removed when authorized by a member of the Radiation Control Department (RCD). If survey data or component installation indicates that activated material should no longer be classified as such, an RCD staff member should be contacted to re-survey the item, remove tags or labels, and release the item. If an activated component is reinstalled, an RCD staff member should be contacted to remove the tags and labels as appropriate. In addition, any radiation signs, tags, or labels to be treated as waste shall be defaced or rendered unintelligible.
413-01) Materials and equipment can become radioactive when exposed to the beam or radiation generated by beam interaction. Surveys shall be conducted in accordance with Article 334, as applicable, upon entry of any accelerator enclosure following beam-producing operations. Components removed from the beam line are required to be surveyed and labeled as appropriate. Any potentially activated material in an accelerator enclosure (see Article 411) shall be surveyed prior to removal from the accelerator enclosure, unless excepted by the RCD. If determined to be activated, the RCD shall assign a custodian. It is the responsibility of the custodian to ensure the use and storage of these materials is in compliance with applicable Federal regulations and Jefferson Lab procedures.
413-02) Materials surveyed and determined to be non-radioactive may be stored or handled on the Jefferson Lab site without restriction. Restrictions on release from the site may be imposed in the case of metals. Metals are subject to two DOE restrictions. A January 12, 2000 Secretarial moratorium restricted the release of volumetrically contaminated metals, and a July 13, 2000 Secretarial suspension restricts the release for recycling of scrap metals from Radiological Areas. Jefferson Lab release procedures preclude the release of any material with volumetric radioactivity, therefore the restrictions imposed by the moratorium are met by normal practice. The suspension on release for recycling involves metals which were located in radiological areas, regardless of the radiological status of the metal itself. Jefferson Lab has implemented procedures designed to prevent such metals from entering a commercial recycling disposition stream.
413-03) Radioactive materials shall not be removed from the site without concurrence of the RCD.
414-01) Radioactive materials movement shall be controlled as specified in applicable procedures. Administrative tracking systems should provide reasonable assurance that radioactive materials are not lost and that appropriate exposure controls are maintained in effect. Periodic physical inventories of radioactive items and equipment should be conducted by the material custodians in coordination with the RCD.
414-02) RCD approval shall be obtained prior to moving radioactive material from one radioactive materials area to another (i.e. between buildings).
414-03) All radioactive material (including sealed and unsealed sources, experimental equipment and He-3 tanks, because of the inherent tritium (H-3) contamination) brought onto the Jefferson Lab site shall be subject to the policies and controls as specified in this Supplement and applicable procedures. At the discretion of the RCD, activated material (re)installed as an accelerator component may no longer require tracking as activated material. Systems and tanks containing He-3 with tritium content above designated thresholds require tracking by the RCD whether installed or not.
415-01) Radioactive material that is outside Contamination, High Contamination, or Airborne Radioactivity Areas and is confirmed or suspected of having removable radioactive contamination levels greater than Appendix 2B values, shall be securely wrapped (e.g., in plastic) or placed in a container.
415-02) Radioactive material with sharp edges or projections should be taped or additionally protected to ensure package integrity.
415-03) Radioactive material with removable or potentially removable contamination levels in excess of 100 times Appendix 2B values should have additional packaging controls, such as double-wrapping or the use of plastic bags inside containers.
415-04) Yellow plastic wrapping material should be used for packaging radioactive material. Yellow plastic sheets or bags should not be used for non-radiological purposes.
415-05) The amount of combustible material used in packaging should be minimized.
This article applies to the storage of non-source radioactive materials. Radioactive sources are discussed in Part 3 of this chapter.
416-01) Radioactive materials shall be stored in locations approved by the RCD.
416-02) The dose rate on the outside of containers containing radioactive materials shall be commensurate with the levels allowed in the area where the container is located, and should not contribute greatly to the area’s background level. Should the container adjoin any area whose classification is less than that of the area in which it is located, a radiation survey shall be performed in the adjoining area to ensure that there is no need to upgrade its classification. Special attention shall be paid to situations where the container adjoins the exterior wall of a building so that exposure rates outside the building are consistent with the radiological posting level for the area.
416-03) A radiation survey of the exterior of the container should be performed any time an object is added to or removed from the container or the contents are shifted. A review of labeling, shielding, etc. should be performed based on the new results.
416-04) Containers of radioactive materials shall be marked with signs or labels indicating that radioactive material is stored within. The contact dose rate on the surface of the container should be recorded.
416-05) General requirements and practices;
a) Radioactive material shall be stored in a designated Radioactive Material Area when not in use.
b) Decontamination or disposal of radioactive material is the preferred alternative to long-term storage.
c) The Radiation Control Manager shall approve each Radioactive Material Area to be used continuously for more than six months. Radioactive Material Areas for transient conditions, such as during equipment maintenance, may be established by a qualified Radiological Control Technologist.
d) Storage of non-radioactive material in a Radioactive Material Area is discouraged.
e) Outdoor storage of radioactive material is discouraged. In cases where outdoor storage is necessary, the integrity of any containers used shall be ensured to prevent degradation from weathering and subsequent release of radioactive material. A container is defined as any device used to prevent degradation from weathering and subsequent release of radioactive material. The custodian should check container integrity periodically at outdoor Radioactive Material Areas.
f) Radioactive material should be stored in a manner that reduces combustible loading. The use of cardboard containers for storage is discouraged.
g) Flammable or combustible materials should not be stored adjacent to Radioactive Material Areas.
h) Fire protection measures, such as smoke detectors, water sprinklers and fire extinguishers, shall be considered when establishing a Radioactive Material Area.
i) Installation or storage of Helium-3 tanks or containers within the experimental halls shall be limited to a tritium (H-3) contamination limit of 10 mCi per experimental hall. This limit may only be exceeded through the written consent of the RadCon Manager (e.g., per RWP).
Each custodian is responsible for the proper handling and storage of radioactive material under his/her cognizance. The custodian shall ensure that a current list of all radioactive materials and their storage areas is provided to the RCD whenever requested.
The RCD shall perform periodic audits of the radioactive material tracking and inventory system. This is normally done by conducting a physical inventory of radioactive material in selected areas on a routine basis. These inventories should be performed at least semi-annually.
of Radioactive Material
421-01) Potentially radioactive material in a Radiologically Controlled Area (RCA) or Radioactive Materials Area shall be surveyed, as appropriate prior to release to uncontrolled areas. Documentation of this evaluation shall be maintained.
421-02) Potentially radioactive material being released to uncontrolled areas should be evaluated for contamination under any coatings. Process knowledge should be applied to this evaluation.
421-03) Material not immediately released after survey shall be controlled to prevent contamination/activation while awaiting release.
421-04) Labels shall be removed or defaced prior to release of material for unrestricted use.
422 Transportation of Radioactive Material
422-01) The requirements in 10 CFR 835, subparts F, Entry Control Program, and G, Posting and Labeling, do not apply to radioactive material transportation by DOE or DOE contractor conducted: (1) under the continuous observation and control of an individual who is knowledgeable of and implements required exposure control measures, or (2) in accordance with Department of Transportation regulations or DOE orders that govern such movements [§835.1(d)].
422-02) The 49 CFR 173 contamination values shall be used as controlling limits for transportation off-site. These limits also apply to on-site transfers of shipments by non-DOE conveyances received from or destined to off-site locations.
422-03) 10 CFR 835 Appendix D removable contamination values shall be used as controlling limits for on-site transportation (for transportation within a Controlled Area, the values from Appendix 2B of this Manual may be used).
422-04) On-site transportation of radioactive material shall be performed in accordance with all applicable DOE Orders and Manuals, including O 460.1B, O 460.2A and M 460.2-1A and their successors, as incorporated into Jefferson Lab requirements.
422-05) On-site transfers shall be performed or directed by the RCD, in accordance with written procedures.
422-06) The monitoring requirements of 10 CFR 835.405(b) do not apply to on-site transport for which continuous observation and control of the material has been provide by a DOE employee or DOE contractor employee who is knowledgeable of and implements required exposure control measures [§835.405(e)].
422-07) Off-site shipments of radioactive material, including subcontractors’ handling of off-site shipments, shall be performed or directed by the RCD and shall be controlled and conducted in accordance with this Manual and applicable Federal, state and local regulations.
422-08) All shipping and receiving of radioactive materials shall be done according to applicable Jefferson Lab procedures.
422-09) The site emergency plan describes appropriate responses for potential on-site radioactive material transportation accidents.
431-01) A radioactive source is radioactive material of known or estimated type and activity in solid, liquid, or gaseous form for use in activities such as instrument calibration, instrument response testing, experiments, etc.
431-02) A sealed source is a radioactive source manufactured, obtained, or retained for the purpose of utilizing the emitted radiation. The sealed source consists of a known or estimated quantity of radioactive material contained within a sealed capsule, sealed between layers of non-radioactive material, or firmly fixed to a non-radioactive surface by electroplating or other means.
431-03) An unsealed source is radioactive material that may be contacted or dispersed under normal conditions of use. Examples of unsealed sources are liquid sources and finely divided solids used for sample standard preparations.
432-01) All sources of radioactive material and He-3 (due to the inherent risk of tritium contamination) shall be procured through the RCD. Persons needing sources are to arrange for procurement through the RCD. If the required source is available on the Jefferson Lab site, the RCD may arrange its loan to the requestor; otherwise, the RCD will approve its purchase if necessary.
432-02) All radioactive sources being sent to the Jefferson Lab site must be received by the RCD. The RCD shall perform receipt surveys of radiological material shipments.
432-03) He-3 containers shall be assessed to determine H-3 contamination by analyzing a sample of the container’s contents, verifying sample records of previous He-3 containers received from the manufacturer, or reviewing manufacturer’s or supplier’s certification of the container’s H-3 content. Containers exceeding 10 mCi are subject to the storage restrictions noted in Article 416. When feasible, significantly contaminated He-3 should be processed to reduce the H-3 contamination prior to its use in an accelerator system. Written procedures shall be followed to ensure control of the material. After evaluation, the RCD may grant exception of the material from tracking and controls based on manufacturer purity specifications or results of sampling.
432-04) Receipt of packages containing radioactive material.
a) If packages containing quantities of radioactive material in excess of a Type A quantity (as defined at 10 CFR 71.4) are expected to be received from radioactive material transportation, arrangements shall be made to either:
1) Take possession of the package when the carrier offers it for delivery; or
2) Receive notification as soon as practicable after arrival of the package at the carrier's terminal and to take possession of the package expeditiously after receiving such notification [§835.405(a)].
b) Upon receipt of radioactive material that has been transported, external surfaces of packages known to contain radioactive material shall be monitored if the package:
1) Is labeled with a Radioactive White I, Yellow II, or Yellow III label (as specified at 49 CFR 172.403 and 172.436-440); or
2) Has been transported as low specific activity material (as defined at 10 CFR 71.4) on an exclusive use vehicle (as defined at 10 CFR 71.4); or
3) Has evidence of degradation, such as packages that are crushed, wet, or damaged [§835.405(b)].
c) The monitoring required by paragraph (b) of this section shall include:
1) Measurements of removable contamination levels, unless the package contains only special form (as defined at 10 CFR 71.4) or gaseous radioactive material; and
2) Measurements of the radiation levels, unless the package contains less than a Type B quantity (as defined at 10 CFR 71.4) of radioactive material [§835.405(c)].
d) The monitoring required by paragraph (b) of this section shall be completed as soon as practicable following receipt of the package, but not later than 8 hours after the beginning of the working day following receipt of the package [§835.405(d)].
432-05) Upon receipt of a source, the RCD shall assign each source a Jefferson Lab serial number, enter it into the source inventory tracking system, and tag the source with its serial number and isotopic content. Radiation type, dose rate on contact, activity and date of determination, and half-life shall be included in the corresponding inventory record in the source inventory tracking system.
432-06) Persons wishing to bring a radioactive source onto the Jefferson Lab site shall notify the RCD in writing well in advance of the transfer of the source so that proper provision can be made for its care and custody.
432-07) All radioactive sources being sent off the Jefferson Lab site shall be processed through the RCD. The RCD shall ensure that the source is properly packaged and United States Department of Transportation (DOT) regulations are met.
433-01) Sealed radioactive sources shall be used, handled, and stored in a manner commensurate with the hazards associated with operations involving the sources [§835.1201]. All persons using sources shall receive documented instruction on their proper storage and use.
433-02) Radioactive sources shall not be permanently moved from their designated storage locations or moved from one building to another without the prior approval of the RCD. When radioactive sources are stored temporarily outside of their approved storage location or are used in an experimental setup, a Radioactive Material Tracking Form shall be posted in plain view near the source. Sources shall be used according to approved written instructions or work permits. Radiation warning signs and labels must be posted as specified in Part 3 of Chapter 2 of this Manual at areas and containers housing sources. Additional posting near the accesses to the area in which the source is being used may also be required. Instructions for safe use of the source, Radiological Control Operating Procedures (RCOPs) or RWPs should be maintained at the location of source use. Persons handling sources are required to be Jefferson Lab trained radiation workers.
434-01) An individual (called the Source Custodian) shall be assigned the functional responsibility for each source. The Source Custodian is responsible for the care, location, condition, and proper use of each source in his/her custody. The Source Custodian shall verify by signature that the duties as custodian are understood. The RCD may retain custodianship of sources, and make them available to souce users via a system of secure check-out/check-in.
434-02) Source Custodians must be employees of Jefferson Lab. They shall retain responsibility for each source in their custody until formally relieved by the RCD, a person approved by the RCD, or another Source Custodian.
434-03) In the case of guests requiring use of sources brought with them, the Jefferson Lab host shall secure an agreement with a custodian for storage and use of the source.
434-04) The Source Custodian is responsible for notifying the RCD in the event the source suffers any damage that could possibly result in loose contamination or it is mislaid or lost. Such notification should be performed as promptly as possible. The RCD will determine what notifications are necessary and will make the proper reports.
434-05) Source Custodians and Users shall be Radiation Worker I trained, at a minimum.
434-06) Source Custodians and Users can take radiation surveys to verify that sources are properly stored or installed in an experimental setup if authorized by the RCD. These surveys shall not be used to post or de-post radiological areas unless the individual conducting the survey is trained at least to the level of Assigned Radiation Monitor.
434-07) Source Custodians and Users may remove Radioactive Material Area or Radiologically Controlled Area signs in accordance with written instructions if conditions no longer require their posting. Reusable signs or labels should be stored in the source locker when not in use.
435-01) Each Source Custodian shall provide a container for storing sources when not in use. The container should be approved by the RCD prior to its use and shall as a minimum, meet the following criteria:
a) used only for the storage of radioactive material
b) able to be securely locked; a copy of the key provided to RCD for audit
c) posted with radiation and radioactive material warning signs as appropriate
d) sturdily constructed and shielded so that the dose rate at 30 cm from the exterior is less than 50 μrem/hr.
435-02) Sources that are required to be permanently attached to an instrument must be securely attached or embedded within the structure of the instrument. Such an instrument must bear a notice stating that it contains a radioactive source and the serial number of the source.
435-03) Sources meeting the definition of an accountable sealed source per the definition of 10 CFR 835 shall be maintained in locked storage when not in use, and shall be attended at all times when in use unless secured against unauthorized removal.
436-01) Source Control Log Sheets or electronic records, records of source inventory, leak test, and Source Custodian training, National Institute on Standards and Technology (NIST) traceability certificates, and approved Source Request Forms shall be kept by the RCD.
436-02) The Source Custodian shall maintain a source utilization log (or make use of an electronic check-in/check-out system) at the source storage location for each source in his/her custody. The log shall bear a full description of the source, and include:
a) Set of instructions for safe use; copy of RCOP or radiation work permit
b) Jefferson Lab serial number
c) Isotope and activity
d) Any special instructions for handling, name of custodian, and current location
436-03) Labels used to identify sealed sources shall meet the requirements of Article 412 and shall also identify the radionuclide, activity, date of assay, and serial number.
436-04) Each time the source is removed for use, an entry is to be made in the logbook (or registered electronically in an automated check-out system). The log shall be located where the source is normally stored and shall be readily available for use or inspection.
436-05) Additional records or reports or documentation concerning use of, tampering with, or loss of sources shall be maintained by the RCD.
A radiation generating device (RGD) is a device which produces ionizing radiation, including certain sealed sources, small particle accelerators used for single purpose applications which produce ionizing radiation (e.g., radiography), and electron generating devices that produce X-rays incidentally. An example of an RGD is an X-ray machine. Test stands and other RGD equipment may be exempted from the requirements of this Part at the discretion of the RCD, if other controls provide equivalent safety and accountability.
442-01) RGDs used in a manner similar to sealed sources shall have their use documented in a log book detailing the configuration and use of the source. The RGD must have an assigned custodian who will be primarily responsible for its safe operation. More complex RGD installations (e.g. test stands and caves) will be operated under Standard Operating Procedures and fully documented control systems.
442-02) A representative of the RCD must approve the location of each RGD prior to its operation. This pertains not only to the initial location but also to any subsequent locations.
442-04) The use of all RGDs will require the use of an RCD-approved procedure (either an Operational Safety Procedure (OSP) or RCOP). Each operator of an RGD shall be a radiation worker. Consult the RCD for further information.
Every six months, a representative of the RCD should verify the location of each RGD and survey the location to ensure that no hazard from direct leakage of radiation exists. Additionally, interlock and applicable safety system checks should be performed.
Records of inspections shall be made and maintained.
An inventory of accountable radioactive sources (see 10 CFR 835.5) [§835 Appendix E] shall be done at intervals not to exceed six months. This inventory should include non-accountable radioactive sources.
451-01) A representative of the RCD shall, with the assistance of the Source Custodian if needed, locate each source and verify that the serial number is legible, evaluate the physical condition of the source, and verify the presence and adequacy of associated postings and labels [§§835.1202(a)(1), 1202(a)(2)].
451-02) An examination of the source’s storage facility will be made to ensure that the source can be properly stored [§835.1202(a)(3)].
451-03) The electronic or paper inventory tracking system for each source shall be updated to reflect the inventory.
451-04) Inventory of stored sources may be conducted by means of verification of storage device integrity if an auditable means is used to restrict storage device access, and it can be confirmed that the container has not been accessed or tampered with since the last inventory.
451-05) At the completion of the inventory, a written report including the findings of the inventory and any recommendations shall be submitted to the Radiation Control Manager.
Leak testing of sources shall be performed during each inventory.
452-01) Except for sealed radioactive sources consisting solely of gaseous radioactive material or tritium, each accountable sealed radioactive source [§835 Appendix E] shall be subject to a source leak test upon receipt, when damage is suspected, and at intervals not to exceed six months. Source leak tests shall be capable of detecting radioactive material leakage equal to or exceeding 0.005mCi [§835.1202(b)].
452-02) Notwithstanding the requirements of Article 452-01, an accountable sealed radioactive source is not subject to periodic source leak testing if that source has been removed from service. Such sources shall be stored in a controlled location, subject to periodic inventory as required by Article 451, and subject to source leak testing prior to being returned to service [§835.1202(c)].
452-03) Notwithstanding the requirements of Articles 452-01 and 452-02, an accountable sealed radioactive source is not subject to periodic inventory and source leak testing if that source is located in an area that is unsafe for human entry or otherwise inaccessible [§835.1202(d)].
452-04) The RCD shall determine the requirements for leak testing unsealed sources on a case by case basis.
452-05) For sources that are mounted inside an enclosure, the leak test may be performed by wiping the outside of the enclosure, paying special attention to areas through which contamination may escape (i.e., joints, seams, etc.).
452-06) The leak test section of the electronic or paper inventory tracking record shall be completed to show that the source has been leak tested.
452-07) A representative of the RCD shall perform the leak test unless the Source Custodian is assigned that responsibility in a technical procedure.
If, at any time, a source cannot be located, the Radiation Control Manager shall be notified immediately and shall institute a search for the missing source according to applicable procedures.
If a source is suspected to be leaking, or is found to be leaking (as specified in a source swipe or leak test procedure), it shall be controlled in a manner that minimizes the spread of radioactive contamination [§835.1202(e)]. The Radiation Control Manager shall be notified immediately. The area in which the source was stored and/or used shall be surveyed for loose contamination and decontaminated as necessary.
The RCD shall assume custody of any leaking sources and will dispose of them properly.
Records of leak tests, inspections, and reports shall be maintained [§835.704(f)]. Investigation and documentation of loss of sealed sources, including circumstance in which the sealed source was lost and detailed efforts to locate the source, shall be conducted in accordance with ES&H Manual Chapter 5200 Event Investigation and Causal Analysis Process and ES&H Manual Chapter 5300 Occurrence Reporting to Department of Energy (DOE), as applicable.
All radioactive waste collection, storage, treatment and disposal activities shall be conducted in a manner consistent with DOE O 435.1 (Radioactive Waste) as implemented at Jefferson Lab, and shall be directed by written procedures.
All radioactive material that is not needed for present or probable future use and which cannot be economically stored for decay, should be disposed of as radioactive waste. Compactable radioactive waste such as disposable protective clothing, rags, and compressible items should be placed in yellow radioactive waste bags. Normally, non-compactable solid and liquid radioactive waste should be placed in approved containers provided by the RCD. Large items that are suitable for “contact burial” may be disposed of without containment. Compactable and non-compactable waste should be kept separate to allow maximum efficiency in the radioactive waste disposal program.
Containers used for radioactive waste shall be approved by the RCD. An RCD representative, prior to delivery to specific areas, shall affix radioactive waste identification labels to containers as needed. Contact the RCD to arrange for transfer of containers for processing.
If items are too large for containers, the RCD should be contacted to determine how the items should be managed.
All compactable waste should be put into yellow bags that are designated by the RCD for this purpose. The bags should not contain any of the following:
· Metal or wood
· Glass in any form
· Cable over 12" long
· Dirt, sand, sweeping compound, or wet material
Contact the RCD to arrange for transfer of containers for processing.
Radiological work planning should include assessments of waste production caused by the work. The following practices should be instituted to support waste minimization.
464-01) Restrict quantities of hazardous materials, such as paints, solvents, chemicals, cleaners and fuels, in areas where they may become activated, and take measures to prevent inadvertent radioactive contamination of these materials.
464-02) Reusable and recyclable materials are preferable to disposable materials.
464-03) Select consumable materials, such as protective coverings and clothing, that are compatible with waste-processing systems, volume reduction, and waste acceptance criteria.
464-04) Segregate waste known to be uncontaminated from potentially contaminated waste.
464-05) Evaluate waste characteristics for the possible use of Decay in Storage as a waste reduction mechanism.
464-06) Minimize the number and size of Radioactive Material Areas.
464-07) Emphasize waste reduction philosophies, techniques and improved methods in training and work control documents.
465-01) Technical and administrative controls should be used to minimize the volume of mixed waste generated and the amount of radioactivity in such waste. Volume reduction methods include process optimization, materials substitution, and new technology development.
465-02) Materials suspected of being mixed waste should be identified and segregated as soon as practical in the generating process to avoid combining mixed waste with other waste forms.
The most stringent regulatory requirements for the types of waste present should be applied to waste classification and disposal.
and Airborne Radioactivity
471-01) Minimization will include evaluating operational requirements to reduce liquid production and maximize recycling activities.
471-02) Radioactive liquid waste is managed by permitted discharge. Procedures and control systems shall be used to ensure the liquid is analyzed prior to release, monitored during release, and the release terminated before exceeding predetermined Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), Department of Energy (DOE), federal, state, or local limits.
471-03) Radioactive liquid waste that cannot be discharged should be processed for solidification or volume reduction prior to final disposition. This is usually accomplished by the radioactive waste disposal vendor/broker.
472-01) Processes and activities with the potential for producing airborne radioactivity shall include engineered controls to limit releases.
472-02) The RCD shall be notified when engineered controls that prevent worker exposure to airborne radioactivity, such as barriers, containments, gloveboxes and glovebags, are compromised. An evaluation shall be made of continuing operations with compromised engineered controls. The use of respiratory protection to continue should be avoided. Implementation of short-term engineered modifications that provide a commensurate level of worker protection is the preferred alternative.
472-03) Preventive maintenance and surveillance shall be performed as described by applicable procedures to ensure equipment controls are maintained in an operable condition for containment of airborne radioactivity.
481-01) Protective clothing designated for radiological control use should be specifically identified by color, symbol, or appropriate labeling.
481-02) Protective clothing designated for radiological control use should not be used for non-radiological work.
481-03) Personal protective equipment and clothing should not be stored with personal street clothing.
481-04) Reusable personal protective equipment shall be surveyed for contamination prior to reissue.
482-01) RWPs or other work control documents shall include provisions to control contamination at the source to minimize the amount of decontamination needed.
482-02) Work preplanning shall include consideration of the handling, temporary storage, and decontamination of materials, tools and equipment.
482-03) Decontamination activities should be controlled to prevent the spread of contamination.
482-04) Water and steam are the preferred decontamination agents. Other cleaning agents should be selected based upon their effectiveness, hazardous properties, amount of waste generated, and ease of disposal.
482-05) Decontamination methods should be used to reduce the overall number and size of Contamination Areas.
482-06) Efforts should be made to reduce the levels of contamination within contaminated areas.
Improper use of vacuum cleaners and portable air-handling equipment may result in the generation of airborne radioactivity, loose surface contamination, and/or high dose rates. Written program plans and procedures shall be used to administer radiological HEPA-filtered equipment use, maintenance and testing.
483-01) Vacuum cleaners and portable air-handling equipment used to control contamination or to prevent airborne radioactivity shall be equipped with High-Efficiency Particulate Air (HEPA) filters.
483-02) Vacuum cleaner and portable air-handling equipment HEPA filters should be integrity tested prior to initial use, and annually thereafter. Testing shall be conducted on vacuum cleaners and HEPA Units that have been opened (and the integrity of the seal around the HEPA may have been breached), dropped, or mishandled. Vacuum cleaners used for radiological work should be:
a) Uniquely marked and labeled
b) Controlled to prevent unauthorized use
c) Designed to ensure HEPA filter integrity under conditions of use
d) Constructed and controlled to prevent unauthorized or accidental access to the inner surfaces of the vacuum.
483-03) Airborne radioactivity levels shall be monitored when a vacuum cleaner is used in a High Contamination Area.