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Privacy and Security Notice
ES&H Manual
Chapter 8030 Air Quality Program
Air quality in Virginia is regulated on the federal level by the Clean Air Act (CAA) and the U. S. Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), Title 40 - Protection of Environment, Chapter 1 - Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), Subchapter C -Air Programs (Parts 50-99); as administered by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. On the state level, air quality is regulated under the Virginia Air Pollution Control Law and the Virginia Administrative Code (VAC) under 9VAC5-10 through 9VAC5-540 (Regulations for the Control and Abatement of Air Pollution); as administered by the Commonwealth of Virginia State Air Pollution Control Board and the Virginia Department of Environmental Quality (DEQ).

Jefferson Lab abides by all Federal and State air quality regulations, along with the requirements of DOE Order 458.1 - Radiation Protection of the Public and the Environment, and DOE Order 436.1 - Departmental Sustainability.

Jefferson Lab's air compliance program focuses on identifying and minimizing emissions from all sources that have the potential to impact ambient air quality. The goals of the program include:
  • Identifying potential air quality issues during experiment, task and project review.
  • Utilizing proper control measures to reduce or eliminate air pollutants from on-site operations, facilities, and equipment.
  • Maximizing the use of safe alternatives to Ozone Depleting Substances (ODSs), Hazardous Air Pollutants (HAPs) and materials containing Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs).
  • Abiding by all applicable regulatory requirements described in this chapter.


Emission Source
Air Pollutant(s)
Compliance/Control Measures
Applicable Regulations
Cavity cleaning operations (Test Lab) VOCs, HAPs, Hydrogen Isopropyl alcohol, Methanol Test Lab scrubbers 40 CFR Part 61 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAPS)/9VAC5-60 - Hazardous Air Pollutants Sources
Niobium cavity acid etching (Test Lab) NOx Nitric acid, Hydrofluoric acid Test Lab scrubbers 40 CFR Part 50 - Standards for Criteria Pollutants
Experimental equipment usage (CEBAF, LERF, Test Lab, ARC) GHGs Sulfur Hexafluroride (SF6), C4F10 Gas reclaiming unit 40 CFR Part 98 - Mandatory Greenhouse Gas Reporting
HVAC/Refrigerants (various locations throughout facility) ODSs R-11, R-12, R-410A EPA certified maintenance mechanics for charged refrigerants maintenance 40 CFR Part 82 - Protection of Stratospheric Ozone
Emergency Generators (various locations throughout facility) VOCs, NOx, CO, SO2, PM Gasoline, Diesel Internal compliance requirements for using generators for emergency use only and limiting usage to <500 hr/year< 40 CFR Part 82 - Protection of Stratospheric Ozone / 9VAC5-80 - Permits for Stationary Sources
Other Fuel-burning equipment/Gas-fired Boilers VOCs, NOx, SOx, CO, PM Diesel Fuel, Natural Gas Digital monitoring system to inform system owner of operational status; annual preventative maintenance 40 CFR Part 82 - Protection of Stratospheric Ozone/9VAC5-60 - Hazardous Air Pollutants Sources
Demolition activities (any expansion areas throughout facility) HAPs Asbestos, Lead Abatement process for proper removal prior to disturbance 40 CFR Part 61 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAPS)/ 9VAC5-60 - Hazardous Air Pollutants Sources
Radionuclides from accelerator enclosures HAPs H-3, N-13, Be-7, C-11, O-15, Cl-38, CL-39 ALARA, Radcon monitoring, NESHAP reporting 40 CFR Part 61 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAPS)
Solvent/coating/spray paint usage VOC, HAP Methanol, Hexane, Acetone, Butane, Propane Pollution prevention practices to reduce overspray emissions 40 CFR Part 82 - Protection of Stratospheric Ozone; 40 CFR Part 61 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAPS)/ 9VAC5-60 - Hazardous Air Pollutants Sources
Table 1 - Emission Sources at Jefferson Lab, summarizes known emission sources, chemical and potential regulated pollutants, and the associated control measures. In most cases, these emissions are well under regulatory thresholds that would require state or federal permits. The sections below describe specific policies, procedures or other operational controls placed upon lab activities and emission sources to assure compliance with specific regulatory elements or best practices.

Emission Source Review
Maintenance of Test Lab Scrubbers
Three scrubbers are located in the TLA mezzanine area to treat exhaust generated by activities occurring in the Production Chem Room, R&D Chem Room, and Clean Room of the Test Lab. Annual maintenance activities are conducted by Facilities Maintenance to ensure proper operations. If required as acid processing demand increases, caustic can be injected into the scrubber system recirculated water basins to improve scrubber acid removal.
Greenhouse Gases (GHG)
GHGs absorb infrared radiation and emit heat into the atmosphere. The primary greenhouse gases in Earth's atmosphere are water vapor, carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, and ozone. Sulfur Hexafluoride (SF6) is a GHG that used in experimental processes at Jefferson Lab. The lab's minimum requirements are consistent with the objectives of DOE Order 436.1 - Departmental Sustainability and DOE Order 232.2 - Occurrence Reporting and Processing of Operations Information. SF6 user responsibilities at Jefferson Lab include:
  • Maintaining records of all SF6 purchases.
  • Establishing and maintaining an accurate inventory of SF6.
  • Establishing and implementing operating procedure(s) documenting equipment capacity and detailing a program for leak detection/repair and methods to recover and store when appropriate.
  • Identifying and use of an authorized SF6 dealer/recycler when appropriate.
  • Reporting any releases greater than 25 lbs. to the ES&H Reporting Officer (x7611).
  • Reporting annual inventory to the Site Sustainability Manager.
Ozone Depleting Substance (ODS)
Regulatory requirements exist for ODS that may be applicable to Jefferson Lab operations, including refrigerants such as R-11 and R-12 utilized for cooling systems at the facility. There are special requirements for handling, recycling, and disposal of these refrigerants under Section 608 of the CAA. These requirements include appropriate EPA training certification for technicians servicing air conditioning and refrigeration equipment; repair of leaking industrial and commercial refrigeration equipment; and maintaining service records that document the date, refrigerant charge amount, and disposal of equipment.
Radioactive Air Emissions
Radionuclides emissions are regulated under 40 CFR Part 61, Subpart H - NESHAP for Emissions of Radionuclides Other Than Radon from Department of Energy Facilities. Included within these regulations are requirements for emission monitoring and testing, emission compliance and reporting, and routine recordkeeping of activities associated with potential emissions as related to the annual effective dose equivalent (EDE) to the public.

Airborne emissions of radionuclides at Jefferson Lab are far below the regulatory limit of 10 mrem/yr to the maximally exposed member of the public. In addition, no emission point at the lab exceeds the regulatory threshold for a continuous monitoring program of 0.1 mrem/yr. Confirmatory monitoring is conducted and required annual reporting under 40 CFR 61 is performed based on very conservative emissions estimates. The procedure used to calculate this emission can be found in the RADCON Manual.
Emergency Generator Usage
The Virginia DEQ regulates emergency and non-emergency generators in Virginia, under 9VAC5-80 Part II Article 6 - Permits for New & Modified Stationary Sources. Under these regulations, emergency generators are classified as stationary emissions sources that are used for emergency use only and do not individually exceed 500 hours of operation per year at a single stationary source. These hours of operations are tracked to ensure that Jefferson Lab does not exceed 500 hours per year thus maintaining status as emergency generators.


Note: Management authority may be delegated to a task qualified Jefferson Lab employee at the discretion of the responsible manager.

Everyone at Jefferson Lab
  • Participates in the planning process to identify new or modified emission sources.
  • Reports unusual emissions from laboratory operations.
  • Manages Sulfur Hexafluoride (SF6) per this procedure.
Facilities Management & Logistics
  • Maintains Test Lab Scrubbers and boilers.
  • Ensures subcontractor certifications for refrigerant system maintenance.
  • Tracks emergency generator usage.
  • Manages and report radionuclide emissions per National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP).
  • Establishes compliance strategies for new or modified emission sources.
Document Control:
    APPROVAL DATE:   10/27/17
    REVIEW DATE:  10/27/20
    Revision 0.0 - 10/27/17 - Initial content

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