On Target (August 1998)
On Target (August 1998)
Hall A experiment delves into proton structure and achieves "strange" results
Nature rarely allows easy insight into fundamental processes. But a recent Jefferson Laboratory experiment involving more than 75 researchers from the United States and abroad ran smoothly, without serious incident or disruption. And its pending findings could prove among the decade's most important in the field of low-energy nuclear physics.
Preliminary results from the Hall A Proton Parity Experiment, or HAPPEX, were announced at a mid-July seminar held at Jefferson Laboratory. The initial conclusion: Strange quarks, the third lightest of the six so-called "flavors", or varieties, of the qu ark family of basic particles, are surprisingly scarce in ordinary nuclear matter.
"The crucial thing in a frontier science is to understand the lay of the land," says Paul Souder, co-spokesperson for the international HAPPEX science team and a professor of physics at Syracuse University. "This is a very important step ...a significant advance."
Another HAPPEX co-spokesperson and William and Mary physics professor, John Michael Finn, says the experimental outcome should enlarge physicists' understanding of proton structure, eventually leading to a more complete understanding of what literally hol ds the nuclear world together.
"Dynamic quark interactions within the nucleus account for almost the entire observed mass of the visible universe," Finn points out. "What we have here is a technique for measuring specific quark distributions in the nuclei. We can determine how much s trange quarks contribute to this net distribution."
One of the key motivations for HAPPEX was to shed light on the "proton spin crisis". Research over the last decade has shown that the "spin" of the proton, responsible for its magnetism and thus for such technologies as medical Magnetic Resonance Imagin g, is not carried by its basic three "valence" quarks (the two lightest "up" and "down" quarks). To investigate the missing spin problem, HAPPEX makes us of a subtle property of subatomic forces.
Most forces in nature act the same way in our world as in a "mirror world" where right-handedness. One of the subatomic forces, the "weak interaction" does not obey this symmetry principle which is called parity. HAPPEX exploits this violation to probe the way in which different flavors of quarks assemble themselves into the protons and neutrons that comprise the atomic nucleus. In particular, HAPPEX is sensitive to matter/antimatter pairs of "strange" quarks that spontaneously appear and disappear wit hin the nucleus. These "sea" quarks exist in addition to the three "valence" quarks that are the basic components that make protons and neutrons.
"We have this model of a three-quark proton. It's not right," contends Charles K. Sinclair, injector group leader for Jefferson Laboratory's Accelerator Division. "The angular momentum doesn't add up. The Hall A experiments were probing the very detail s of the proton's structure. It's hot stuff."
Historically, parity experiments have been difficult to arrange and conduct. Physicist Souder had initially proposed a HAPPEX-like experiment as early as 1980, but was stymied by cost and lack of appropriate apparatus.
Once Jefferson Lab's accelerator was developed, however, it became that the necessary equipment would be available to researchers at reasonable expense. Request for HAPPEX funding was made in 1991 and the project was approved by the end of the 1992 calen dar year.
Proof-of-concept testing for HAPPEX began in August 1997, with a full-scale dress rehearsal conducted in December of that same year. By the end of the first quarter of 1998 the HAPPEX science team began its work in earnest.
"They ran the experiment in April and announced the results in July. We're not talking years; we're talking months," Sinclair says. "If you can bring out experiments every few months you really make progress. You've opened up new doors."
Co-spokespersons Finn and Souder say that from a purely technical point of view, HAPPEX was a stunning achievement. They credit a large part of the HAPPEX project's success to the quality of the Lab's electron accelerator which, like a powerful microscop e, is capable of unprecedented resolution. The electron beam was extraordinarily stable as well, eliminating certain kinds of interference that could otherwise affect the validity of experimental data.
In particular, Finn attributes the positive outcome to the collective experience accumulated by the primary researchers and the expertise of Jefferson Lab personnel.
"If you want to be successful you have to work with people who know what they're doing," Finn explains. "This is not the kind of experiment where you do on-the-job training. And the [electron] beam was absolutely outstanding. The machine was spectacula r, it was extremely quiet."
Funding is being sought for a follow-p experiment that would run at even higher resolution by spring 1999. Although it is difficult to predict what, if any, applied-science benefits might result from the HAPPEX investigations, Finn believes that they wil l come in time.
"What we've seen historically is that any advance in the fundamental understanding of nature has led to significant technological advances," he says. "In the case of electromagnetism, it took nearly half a century. It's a long-term, complex process.
"The full benefits from the kind of knowledge we're talking about may take a century or more to develop. How that knowledge will be used to benefit mankind isn't yet known. That they will be benefit mankind is highly likely - inevitable, in fact."
UN Ambassador Richardson becomes new head of DOE
By Judy Jackson, Fermi Lab Public Affairs
On July 31, the U.S. Senate unanimously confirmed U.N. Ambassador Bill Richardson as the new Secretary of Energy.
President Bill Clinton welcomed Richardson's confirmation. In a statement issued from the Hamptons on Long Island, the vacationing Clinton said Richardson brings extraordinary experience and expertise to his new job at DOE.
"As a member of the U.S. Congress representing New Mexico, an energy-rich state is home to two Department of Energy national laboratories," Clinton said, "he has extensive firsthand experience on issues ranging from oil and gas deregulation, to alternativ e energy, to ensuring strong environmental standards in energy development. As U.S. Ambassador to the United Nations, he has been a vigorous and articulate proponent of U.S. engagement and has successfully tackled tough negotiating challenges around the world."
Richardson was elected eight times as U.S. representative of the 3rd District in New Mexico. He served as Chief Deputy Whip, among the highest-ranking posts in the house Democratic leadership, and also chaired the Congressional Hispanic Caucus.
As a special presidential envoy, Congressman Richardson traveled to trouble spots around the globe, gaining a growing reputation for his negotiating ability in areas of crisis. In Myanmar (formerly Burma) for example, he visited Aung San Suu Kyi, winner of the 1991 Nobel Peace Prize for her role in that country's pro-democracy movement, while she was under house arrest by Myanmar's military dictatorship. Richardson's efforts are credited with achieving greater freedom for the Burmese leader and her foll owers in the struggle for democracy. President Clinton name Richardson ambassador to the U.N. in December, 1996.
Officials at DOE's Office of Energy Research said they are pleased at Richardson's swift confirmation.
"I am delighted that Ambassador Richardson will be bringing his well-known energy and abilities to the Department of Energy," said Energy Research director Martha Krebs. "We are looking forward to working with him as we continue to strengthen the Departm ent's leadership in the support of U.S. science and technology."
Richardson said he will retain his position as U.N. Ambassador until he takes up his post as DOE Secretary after a "long-delayed" family vacation. DOE officials said Acting Secretary Elizabeth Moler will continue to serve until Richardson's arrival at DOE.
August 18, 1998
By Bill Richardson
I am delighted to report that, earlier today, I took the oath of office as the new Secretary of Energy. My first official day at work will be next Monday, but I wanted to take this opportunity to let you know how much I am looking forward to working with all of you in advancing the President's goals and the Department's many critical missions.
As you know, there are many important items on our agenda: protecting our national security; advancing the frontiers of science and technology; helping to solve the challenge of global climate change; cleaning up waste sites throughout the country; workin g to bring down the cost of electricity to the American people; and ensuring a balanced energy portfolio for our nation. All of these will require your continued dedication and expertise, which I already know I can count on.
I want the Department of Energy to be one of the finest cabinet agencies. I want the American people to know the Department in working for them. You have my commitment to listen, to work hard, and to lead with a sense of purpose and pride in the fact th at the Department of Energy has much to contribute in preparing our country for the new century ahead.
I also want you to know that the President has asked me to continue, for a brief time, as his Ambassador to the United Nations. Given recent developments affecting key U.S. interests abroad, I am sure you can understand the importance of not leaving the U.N. post vacant at this crucial juncture. Nevertheless, I will be devoting considerable time and effort immediately to my new responsibilities at DOE, including traveling to a number of our sites around the country. In the weeks ahead, I look forward t o meeting you, and the privilege of working with you.
Volunteers needed for upcoming activities, events
Fall is just around the corner and with it the Director's Office annual request for your help supporting two important activities.
Jefferson Lab's outreach activities are an important part of the Lab's mission, but those activities take volunteers who will give of their time. Two such initiatives are the Virginia State Fair and BEAMS.
The State Fair, held in Richmond, runs from Sept. 24 - Oct. 4 this year. More than 1.4 million people will visit the State Fair and more than 300,000 will stop by the booth, which includes answering questions and assisting with children's activities. A person with current oxygen deficiency hazard training is needed on each shift for cryogenics shows. A training meeting will be available for all former and new volunteers.
For each eight hour shift, volunteers receive an admission ticket that may be used for a free trip back to the fair. The Lab also pays mileage for the trip and food expenses. Call Sarah Ingels at ext. 7444, or email email@example.com to sign up.
The Education Department is gearing up for its ninth year of BEAMS, or Becoming Enthusiastic About Math and Science. The week-long program for middle school students opens their eyes to the varied careers and personalities found in a national lab setting. Students take part in 12-14 hands-on activities. The Education staff needs volunteers to help with these activities. Check out the activities during the upcoming BEAMS Volunteer Fair to see if this is something you'd like to do. The Volunteer Fair will be held in the CEBAF Center lobby during the week of Sept. 21. "The volunteer fair gives us a chance to recruit new volunteers and refresh current volunteers," said Janet Tyler, Science Education Manager.
Call Science Education Technician Lisa Surles-Law at ext. 5002 for more information.
A subcommittee of the Nuclear Science Advisory Committee (NSAC) of the Department of Energy visited Jefferson Lab, Aug. 3-5, to review the science programs pertaining to medium-energy physics.
Chaired by Dr. James Symons, Lawrence Berkeley National Lab (LBL), the review panel saw the accelerator first-hand and reviewed experimental operations. They also heard a number of presentations including briefings from Jefferson Lab users regarding the experimental program. The committee interacted with Lab staff, users, and graduate and post doctoral students during their visit.
The purpose of the review was to help set the scientific priorities within the medium energy sub-field of nuclear physics. Jefferson Lab was the last of three stops made by the committee. While the panel did not have a formal close-out session or issue a final report, the Lab expects to hear the committee's findings by mid-September. More information about the reviews is available on the web at http://symons.lbl.gov/nsac
By Karen Bennett, Employee Relations Manager
On occasion, staff members may find themselves in ethical dilemmas when making decisions about getting involved in activities that may create or appear to create a conflict with their work responsibilities and the interests of the Laboratory.
Outside activities are not precluded when you work at the Lab. Consulting for others and other moonlighting work can often be beneficial for the individual's growth and can add value for the Lab. Conflicts may occur though, when outside activities or in terests interfere with effective job performance or alter the judgement or ability of individuals to act in the best interests of the Lab.
In all business dealings, prudent judgment must be exercised to avoid situations where one's loyalties may be questioned, particularly in situations involving sensitive procurement, intellectual property, personnel decisions, or outside employment activit ies leveraged with one's association with the Lab. In all dealings, Lab staff must be mindful of the potential for conflict of interest and conform to established standards of professional conduct and integrity. Even activities that appear unrelated to the Lab's mission may present a conflict of interest question.
Conflict of interest could involve such things as accepting gifts, trips, or personal discounts. It also could include situations where the staff member has a business interest in an organization which does business with or is seeking to do business with the Laboratory, or which engages in similar work under contract to the DOE. In addition, it is prudent for individual staff members to refrain from using their positions at the Lab to endorse products and services, or represent personal opinions as thos e of the Laboratory.
Lab policy requires the disclosure of outside business activities ahead of time allowing any appearance of conflict to be resolved up front. If circumstances are unclear as to the propriety of the activity, talk with your supervisor, knowledgeable staff members such as our in-house legal staff, John Mullin (ext. 7543) and Rhonda Scales 9ext. 7384) or the Employee Relations Manager, Karen Bennett (ext. 7232). It opens up a line of communication for discussion of any ethical issues or impropriety that may arise in the course of the activity.
To initiate a request to engage in outside business activities, be it employment, consulting, or establishing a comparable business activity, submit a completed "Request to Engage in Outside Business Activities" form to your Division Associate Director fo r review and approval.
One of the values of the submittal is that it may help the Lab identify potential conflicts that are unknown to the person submitting the request. Requests for activities of a continuing nature must be resubmitted annually for review and approval. Once submitted, you will receive a reminder annually from Human Resources.
Some time ago the Director, Hermann Grunder, issued a memorandum to all employees that summarized some of the Lab's components of conflict of interest. As a reminder, they are as follows:
Competing and conflicting professional interests between the individual staff member and the Laboratory will be resolved in favor of the Laboratory.
Preferential treatment resulting or arising from employment must be avoided, therefore even when there is not a real conflict the appearance of one must also be avoided.
Any work done for SURA, the Lab or Department of Energy is the same, and no additional payments may be accepted for such work. Any outside work which does not conflict with the Lab must be done on the staff member's own time.
The Laboratory's resources such as equipment, machinery, computers, stationary, clerical support, may not be used for outside interests.
For more information on this topic, check with your supervisor, our Legal Services staff, the Employee Handbook (page 5-4), or Employee Relations.
A brochure summarizing Jefferson Lab's Institutional Plan for FY1998-FY2002 has been distributed across the site.
The brochure discusses the Lab's immediate, medium and long-term goals in the areas of nuclear physics research and experimentation, the 12-GeV upgrade and the Free Electron Laser. The brochure also touches upon DOE's new Strategic Simulation Program and JLab's Institutional Management.
"Please take a few minutes to review the brochure and think about how you can best take part in the Lab's future plans," says Lab Director Hermann Grunder.
The entire document (about 40 pages), may be reviewed at the Library or downloaded from the JLab website at http://www.jlab.org/media_relations/InstPlan/archive/IPFY98.pdf. To open the document you need Adobe Acrobat software. Extra copies of the brochure are available in the Director's Office, ext. 7553.
Open meetings, giving Lab staff the opportunity to ask questions about the plan and the Lab's direction, will be announced soon.
Jeffords Retires from JLab
After more than a decade serving Lab community After nearly a dozen years of service to Jefferson Lab, Tom Jeffords is retiring Aug. 24. The senior tradesman started work here Nov. 26, 1986, as a watchman and utility serviceman. His efforts over the years helped keep the Lab well maintained and look ing good.
He has mowed and maintained the grounds and flower beds, served as watchman, performed janitorial inspections, maintained Lab vehicles, set up and moved office furniture, conducted utility readings, and served as a jack-of-all-trades over the years.
His favorite duties included helping with tours and assisting the Lab's many visitors. He also enjoyed his efforts to improve Lab-wide aluminum can recycling and working with the JLab Activities Group.
"I've really enjoyed working here," Jeffords said. "I've worked with lots of people who have been really good to me over the years. Having immediate supervisors like Don Seeley and Bill Rust provided much of my motivation. It's been impressive watching the Lab grow; it's like watching a family grow."
"Tom has always been willing to go that extra mile to get a job done. He never hesitated to take on any task," said Don Seeley, Plant Engineering supervisor of maintenance and Jefford's former supervisor. "He cares about people and has been dedicated to the Lab."
"You couldn't ask for a more fantastic person to work with," added Todd Jones, Jefford's often-time work partner over the past 11 years. "I'll miss his easy going manner. Everyone will miss him."
The 28-year Navy and Air Force veteran plans to travel and visit family in his new-found free time. His first trip will take him to Chicago next month for a military reunion. While there Tom and his wife, Mercedes, plan to visit their daughters who resi de in Chicago and Belleville, III. He is also planning to visit to Fermi Lab.
Much of the Lab community turned out for Jefford's retirement party, held Aug. 21 in the VARC. Happy trails and happy gardening, Tom!
Kovar selected as DOE's acting nuclear physics director
Dave Hendrie-long time Director of the Nuclear Physics Division of the Department of Energy retired recently. Jefferson Lab falls under this division's management.
In comments to Physics Today regarding his retirement, Hendrie said one of his proudest accomplishments is Jefferson lab and its physics program. Jefferson Lab has been associated with Hendrie since ground was first broken for the Lab's construction. Ma ny JLab staff members will remember Hendrie from the numerous DOE semi-Annual Construction Reviews.
In April, Hendrie passed the baton to Dennis Kovar, Acting Director of the Nuclear Physics Division. Kovar has already visited the lab twice-once in April to get to know the lab and its many accomplishments, and more recently during the Medium Energy Rev iew held June 4 and 5.
Prior to taking over from Hendrie, Kovar held positions at DOE as the Program Manager for Heavy Ion Nuclear Physics in the Division of Nuclear Physics, and most recently as the Project Officer for the Relativistic Heavy Ion Project. Most of Kovar's caree r, previous to his tenure with DOE, was spent at Argonne National Laboratory. He was honored as a Fellow of the American Physical Society in 1996 for his heavy ion research at Argonne (1973-1990). Jefferson Lab can look forward to many more visits from Dennis Kovar during his current assignment at DOE.
Dylla Becomes Newest Member of JLab's Director's Council
Congratulations to Fred Dylla on his recent appointment to the Jefferson Lab Director's Council. Dylla, who has been with the Lab since 1990, serves as the Free Electron Laser (FEL) Program Manager and Technology Transfer Manager.
The Director's Council now includes Lab Director, Hermann Grunder; Christoph Leemann, Accelerator Division; Larry Cardman, Physics Division; Ron Sundelin, Office of Technical Performance; Roy Whitney, Administration Division; Nathan Isgur, Head of Theory, and Dylla.
The Director's Council meets weekly to share in the overall management decisions of the Laboratory.
The new Physics Storage building, located adjacent to the Counting House parking lot on the accelerator site, is completed. A dedication of the Free Electron Laser (FEL) is scheduled for this fall, and the celebration will take place in the Physics Stora ge building. The dedication will be a large event requiring tour guides, greeters, escorts, and extra people on crowd control. As specifics about the event are determined, Sarah Ingels, ext. 7444, will be seeking volunteers. After the ceremony, this ne w building will be used to store physics equipment.
$2M-$3M grant awarded to four local universities
Virginia's Secretary of Commerce and Trade, Barry DuVal, and the Center for Innovative Technology recently announced the presentation of a $2 million grant to four local universities collaborating in the new Applied Research Center (ARC) adjacent to the J efferson Lab campus.
The announcement, made August 11, awarded Christopher Newport University, Norfolk State University, Old Dominion University and the College of William and Mary with the 5 year, $2-3 million award.
The award will be used to help the universities form the Center for Plasma and Photon Processing at the ARC. The new center will conduct research using lasers and plasmas and their interactions with materials, structures and devices.
The award also assists the universities in creating a gateway for small, medium and large businesses to access expensive equipment at the ARC and Jefferson Lab, and will facilitate access to the expertise of university researchers and Jefferson Lab scient ists.
The new center also hopes to assist in the development of new applications of technologies, and share in the spin-off potential of new technologies developed at the ARC.
Covering the "good news" of DOE is a new website called "DOE, Pulse." This on-line newsletter reports science and technology highlights from the Department of Energy's national laboratories, including Jefferson Lab. DOE Pulse is posted twice a month and includes research highlights, updates on collaborations among laboratories and profiles of individual researchers.
DOE Pulse is published in both HTML and PDF formats. The HTML version can be accessed with any web browser; the PDF version requires the use of Adobe Acrobat software, which can be downloaded at no charge. The HTML version contains extra research highli ghts, which, because of limited space, aren't in the PDF or printed versions. You can even sign up to have yourself reminded by e-mail to look at each new issue.
Set your web address bookmark for http://www.ornl.gov/news/pulse/.
Jefferson Science Associates, LLC, a joint venture of the Southeastern Universities Research Association, Inc. and PAE, manages and operates the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, or Jefferson Lab, for the U.S. Department of Energy's Office of Science.
DOE’s Office of Science is the single largest supporter of basic research in the physical sciences in the United States and is working to address some of the most pressing challenges of our time. For more information, visit https://energy.gov/science.