On Target (November & December 1996)
Site grows to accommodate programs
Nevenka is no stranger to science
Five and Ten year Jefferson Lab employees awarded
Radyushkin named APS Fellow
Laboratory events calendar gets a new face
Safer tunnels lead to safer service buildings
New rooms at Residence Facility
Walking trail cleaned
MOU signed with North Carolina Central
Lab employees reach out to the community
Kaons. Though the word may sound like something sweet to eat, it actually refers to tiny particles, unseen by the naked eye, that have puzzled scientists since their discovery almost 50 years ago.
Scientists believe that understanding the properties of the kaon will put them one step closer toward understanding the structure of matter.
Kaon electroproduction was the subject of some of the first experiments at Jefferson Lab that scientists hope will lead to answers about matter and the universe. Many theories and models exist for the kaon, however, none have been proven.
That is why the nuclear physics community anxiously awaits the results of recent experiments at Jefferson Lab - the electromagnetic production of the kaon (E93-018 and E91-016) which began October 3 and concluded November 6, 1996.
The completion of the kaon experiments was a feat that has caused many to celebrate.
"I am thrilled to have been a part of this historic measurement - the first time that it will have been done with this precision," said Keith Baker, a Hampton University professor and physicist who is the spokesman for the team of around 90 experimenters on the E93-018 project. Ben Zeidman, an HU adjunct professor, is the spokesman for the related E91-016 experiment.
"It was a great accomplishment," said Gabriel Niculescu, the HU doctoral candidate on the experiment. "We were able to prove to ourselves that this experiment could be done. The accomplishment also confirms what we can achieve as human beings."
Graduate students Niculescu, Jinseok Cha, Wendy Hinton, Ioana Niculescu; and postdoctoral fellows, Ketevi Assamagan and Paul Gueye, all from HU, performed critical roles in the success of the experiment. Baker sings high praise for the effort put forth by the group, adding "they all worked very long hours and were under a lot of stress to pull this off."
The experiments were some of the first of 80 approved for precious beam time at Jefferson Lab. The kaon experiment was also the first major experiment, of at least four by HU, to be conducted by faculty from a Historically Black College or University at a national lab concentrating in nuclear physics. HU is also collaborating in various other experiments at Jefferson Lab and at other research institutions.
The complex experimental process for measuring kaons is based on a few scientific principles and the use of Jefferson Lab's unique continuous electron beam accelerator and house-sized experimental equipment.
"Kaons are produced as a result of scattering high energy electrons electrons traveling at the speed of light] off of protons contained in a certain target," explains Baker. "From this scattering process, both kaons and particles known as hyperons, are detected."
Jefferson Lab's beam of highly accelerated electrons were used to interact with protons from Hall C's liquid hydrogen target, adds Assamagan. "Liquid hydrogen is a good target for this experiment because it only has one proton in its nucleus," he explains. "The less protons there are, the easier it is to measure the motion of the particles."
Two detectors, located downstream of the target detect particles as they scattered from the target. One detector measures the momentum and direction of the scattered electrons, while the other detects the momentum and direction of the kaons. These two particles must be detected simultaneously in order to ensure that they are produced in the same interaction process.
The probability of creating kaons is very low. In fact, one out of every 1,0000 or so kaon events will actually be a kaon. "Jefferson Lab's continuous beam of electrons on a target allows the chances of creating kaons to increase," explains Niculescu. "Others were unable to perform a kaon electroproduction experiment as precise as the one we've completed because the equipment and the continuous beam were not available."
The resulting data, currently being analyzed, will provide a better understanding of the kaon, as well as form a basis for future experiments at Jefferson Lab, and elsewhere, involving kaons and the associated hypernuclei.
The immediate impact of the experiment will be felt by four of the HU graduate students who participated, as well as University of Maryland graduate student, Rick Mohring. For them, the data taken during the allotted beam-time provides a basis for their theses required to earn doctoral degrees in Physics.
As for the immediate impact or benefit to the rest of the world, "We never know... perhaps our children and grandchildren may find some practical use for our understanding of the electromagnetic properties of kaons," says Baker. "Meanwhile, we'll continue doing what we do best -- pursuing knowledge."
Quarks, gluons and a third group of particles, called leptons (the electron is an example of a lepton), are generally believed to be the building blocks of matter. While electrons surround nuclei in atoms, quarks are found inside protons and neutrons which are located inside the nucleus of atoms.
Scientists thus far, have detected six different quarks: up, down, strange, charm, top and bottom. A kaon is a particle made up of an anti-strange (antiparticle of the strange quark) and an up quark pair.
Paul Gueye, HU postdoctoral fellow
December 1996 marks a month of accomplishments for Jefferson Lab: Beam was delivered to Hall B and 525 kilowatt beam delivered to Hall C, both on December 5; and polarized beam was delivered to Hall C on December 15. These were huge efforts by many people. Congratulations!
Merle Rivas and Larry Cardman have been promoted to top positions at Jefferson Lab. Rivas was promoted from her position as Employee Relations Manager to Human Resources and Services Director. After an extensive national search, Cardman was selected to replace John Domingo, who is stepping down December 31, 1996, as Associate Director of Physics.
Cardman came to Jefferson Lab in 1989-90 on a sabbatical leave from the University of Illinois. He joined the Laboratory permanently in 1993 as the Deputy Associate Director for Physics, and has assisted Domingo in his responsibilities for building and equipping the three experimental halls. The associate director plays a vital role in assuring an effective and productive nuclear physics program. He is the key interface between the laboratory and the hundreds of users who conduct there research in the experimental halls.
Rivas' new duties include planning and directing all personnel related policies and programs, including employee recognition programs and conference services. Rivas, who began at Jefferson Lab in August 1995, will also serve as a consultant to senior Laboratory management on a broad range of issues that have an impact on the quality of work life.
Administration Division's Elizabeth Lawson, was presented an "Exceptional Service Award" by the Department of Energy for her participation as an examiner in the Department's Quality Award program.
Lawson served on a team responsible for the examination of the Quality Award applications. The team conducted site visits and provided feed back reports to DOE, contractors, and labs in respect to the evaluation of the organizations. Lawson presented the analysis of the Quality Award results to the DOE Leadership Group.
Lawson also received a certificate of appreciation from Secretary of Energy Hazel O'Leary on November 21, 1996 at a meeting of the DOE Leadership Group in Washington, D.C. Lawson was recognized for her assistance and expertise on the DOE Quality Council with not only the Quality Awards Program, but also with performance measures and the Department Critical Successes.
Site grows to accommodate programs
In the spirit of technological advancement for the future that has made Jefferson Lab famous, several areas around the site are under construction. At each construction site the goal is to leave standing a new, highly efficient building, which will provide much needed office and work space.
The Applied Research Center (ARC), which is under construction through a collaborative effort by Jefferson Lab, the city of Newport News, and several local universities, is scheduled to be completed by November 1997. According to Tom Dunn, Plant Engineering Director, the construction is proceeding on time, and much progress has been made with the building and parking lot this month. Dunn also said meetings between the contractor, the City of Newport News, and Jefferson Lab frequently take place in order to share up-to-date information on the status of the construction.
The Accelerator Technical Support Building (ATS), which began construction in early June 1996, was completed in December 1996. According to Bill Kozma of the Accelerator Division, the ATS will house technical groups that are responsible for the operation and maintenance of the accelerator. Among those groups are the Cryogenics group and the High Power Electronics group. These two groups will move into the building in January or February of 1997. Other groups, including Radiation Control and Safety Systems, will also occupy the building.
The Free Electron Laser Facility (FEL) also began construction in June, and has an estimated completion date of August 1997. The building will house the Free Electron Laser and all personnel who will use and operate it. According to George Neil, FEL Deputy Program Manager, the laser is expected to supply 2,000 hours a year of light. There will be at least seven operational labs in the building, including a lab reserved for use by Dupont, one for metal machining, one for propagation and damage effects testing, and one for micro machining. Two labs are yet to be committed. "It's going to have just what industry wants to see - that is a laser source that we can run with a set of user labs upstairs where they can bring materials and test them out," said Neil.
Nevenka is no stranger to science
Pick a language. Chances are Nevenka Zdravkovska, Jefferson Lab's newest librarian, will be able to speak it fluently. Zdravkovska has mastered Macedonian, English, French, Croatian, Serbian, and Bulgarian. While these skills are certainly beneficial to an international facility such as Jefferson Lab, Zdravkovska also has other marketable credentials. She has a Bachelor's of Science degree in Physics from Cyril and Mothodius University, located in her homeland of Skopje, Macedonia, and a Master's of Library Science from Texas Woman's University.
"I was interested in Physics while I was growing up. My sister majored in Mathematics, and my brother majored in Chemistry, so I've always been around science," said Zdravkovska.
In the beginning of her career, Zdravkovska worked as a meteorologist in a program that tracked hail storms and prevented the hail from falling by emitting silver iodine into the clouds.
Zdravkovska says that, although she enjoyed the work, the hours required by this program did not leave her enough time to spend with her family. So, she left her meteorology position and went into library science.
"After I went into library science, I didn't specialize in any particular aspect of science and just knowing general Physics wasn't enough. So when I tried to return to Physics there was a gap of many years and I decided that the library was the best thing for me. And then, I never looked back," said Zdravkovska.
Zdravkovska has a vast knowledge of on line services which, according to her, will be valuable for the growth of the library at Jefferson Lab. She also said she is looking forward to being able to use her experience to provide services to Jefferson Lab employees.
Zdravkovska says she finds the atmosphere, and the attitudes of employees at Jefferson Lab very nice, and that she has wanted to work here for some time. "I read about the job opening in the newspaper, but even before I read about it I was hoping that an opening would come along and I would get a job here," said Zdravkovska.
Before Jefferson Lab, Zdravkovska worked in the Pearl Bailey Library in Newport News. Prior to that, she spent 15 years at the Macedonian Academy of Sciences and Arts, where she held several positions, including: Senior Librarian, Head Coordinator at the Department of Science, and Associate Secretary General of the Academy.
Zdravkovska commented that although she has left the field of science, she still likes to be in scientific atmospheres. "I really enjoyed my work in the academy. It is a highly scientific institution, and I enjoy being surrounded by scientists. Here at Jefferson Lab, I can enjoy that feeling once again," said Zdravkovska.
Five and ten year Jefferson Lab employees awarded
Service, recognition, and accomplishment was the theme of the day on December 3, 1996, at Jefferson Lab. Fifty-seven employees were awarded for their five and ten years of service to the Laboratory in a ceremony that was followed by a reception.
Forty-five percent of Lab employees have worked at the Lab for more than five years. Of that 45 percent, nine percent have been at the Lab for more than 10 years. Director Hermann Grunder stated that the Service Awards are just one part of the Jefferson Lab culture - a culture that appreciates and recognizes individuals."At this ceremony, we recognize ideas and initiatives that have been brought to the table and have made this a lively place," said Grunder.
During his speech, Grunder traced the history of the organization and acknowledged that those employees being honored all had a significant part in the development of the facility."This longevity award is also an award for the activities you have accomplished," Grunder told the recipients.
"Ten years ago, we were beginning construction and very little was here. Now we have completed construction, have had our first beam, and are actually doing real nuclear physics," said Grunder. "I think each of you know what piece of that action you have accomplished."
Janet Prater, Staff Administrator in Physics and a five year award recipient, enjoyed the chance to be recognized for helping bring the lab to fruition. "It was nice to feel like the people we work for and the Director of the Lab value our efforts," said Prater. "The ceremony acknowledged that everybody's role is important even though everyone has such varied jobs. Together, we have all built this Lab and made it what it is today."
|Ten Year Award Recipients||
Five Year Award Recipients
C. Scott Higgins
Ernest Sommer, Jr.
David Williams, Jr.
Making a Difference
Some may know Tom Jeffords for his passion for recycling. His efforts have enabled him to contribute $500 towards Laboratory recreation events. But others know him for being a jack-of-trades and a Jefferson Lab historian all in one.
He began his career at Jefferson Lab 10 years ago when there were only 100 employees and VARC was the only administrative building on site. Jeffords has been a witness to the growth and prosperity of the Laboratory, and even considers it and the employees to be like a family to him.
"I've known many people at Jefferson Lab for a long time," says Jeffords. "I enjoy people and I value relationships."
Jeffords cherishes his first experiences here including being escorted around to meet the Director Hermann Grunder as well as all Laboratory employees.
Jeffords' responsibilities during his first position as a watchman included locking the VARC building at night and taking down and putting up the flags. His duties later grew to include cutting the grass, moving furniture, setting up rooms for meetings and conferences, and making small repairs around the site. In his current position as senior tradesman, Jeffords supervises the maintenance of the government vehicles, evaluates some contractual services, checks meters and gauges on-site for temperature, pressure and chemical levels; and helps to move heavy equipment.
Jeffords' role in the growth and appearance of the Laboratory has been steady. Jeffords says he has helped clear land for several buildings and has cut more grass on site than at his own home. But Jeffords says he doesn't mind. "In the early years, I did most of the grass cutting myself because I like outdoor work," says Jeffords. "I think it is important to have attractive landscaping because it demonstrates pride in our facility."
Jeffords is known around the site to have a green thumb - a trait he traces back to his days in the military. "While living on a military base, I won the 'Most Attractive House' award for several years because of the appearance of my yard," says Jeffords. His love of the outdoors and horticulture followed him to Jefferson Lab where, over the years, he has planted trees in support of Arbor Day, 3,000 daffodils, and at one time, a small fruit orchard.
Jeffords' support for the environment can also be seen through his recycling efforts. He created a program that earns money for the Jefferson Activities Group (JAG), which coordinates Laboratory recreation events. He increased the number of recycling bins on-site and placed them in centralized locations. Jeffords encourages employees to recycle their aluminum drink cans. The cans are then collected, smashed and taken to a recycling site.
Jeffords uses his lunch hour to collect and crush cans. He usually takes the cans to the recycling site on the weekend. He recycles an average of 250 to 500-pounds of aluminum cans a month.
"I have always believed in not wasting and in making things more efficient and effective," says Jeffords. "Recycling is just one way we can do those things, and it earns money for the Laboratory at the same time."
Radyushkin named APS fellow
Anatoly Radyushkin has been selected as a Fellow of the American Physical Society in recognition for his "outstanding contributions to physics." Radyushkin was awarded the Fellowship based primarily on his work with processes in quantum chromodynamics. Radyushkin works at Jefferson Lab through a joint position with Old Dominion University. He came to the U.S. from Russia in 1992. Other APS Fellows at Jefferson Lab include: Joe Bisognano, Larry Cardman, John Domingo, Nathan Isgur, Franz Gross, Hermann Grunder, Christoph Leemann, Richard Madey, Charlie Sinclair, Ron Sundelin and John Walecka.
Laboratory events calendar gets a new face
A new laboratory events calendar has been established at Jefferson Lab to prevent conflicts in scheduling. In collaboration with Conference Services, the Director's Office will keep track of all events with long lead times including hall collaborations, workshops, conferences, and recreation events. Information should be submitted to the Director's Office before plans for the event have been finalized. A person in each Division will be responsible for gathering and submitting event information. A Conference Guidelines handbook is in the works that will list procedures for setting up events. Standardized forms will be included in the book. For more information, contact Sue Ewing at x7539.
Safer tunnels lead to safer service buildings
A team of seven from the Accelerator Division has been working to improve the tunnel configuration to further control fires, radiation, and ODH hazards in the service buildings.
The team has reduced the risk present in the service buildings by adding aluminum plates to the ceiling of the tunnel. The plates support radiation shielding and restrict the migration of helium from the tunnel into the service buildings. They also serve as a barrier to smoke and fire in the tunnels.
The team, which consists of Mark Augustine, Al Guerra, Eric Hanson, Tom Hassler, Jim Parkinson, Keith Welch, and Mike Willard, has been working on the reconfiguration of the tunnel for two years. Although the project has yet to be completed, a major milestone has been reached with the completion of both the north and south linacs.
New rooms at Residence Facility
Jefferson Lab can now offer its visitors 16 new rooms at the SURA Residence Facility. The rooms have been under construction since March and were completed at the end of September. New furniture has been purchased and placed in the rooms. Catholic University has signed on to sponsor one of the new rooms. The additional rooms allow eight of the older rooms to be used for office space for users. For information on reserving a room for lodging, call the Residence Facility at x7460.
Walking trail cleaned
Too busy to exercise before or after work? Try out the recently refurbished Jefferson Lab Walking Trail during lunch time. Thanks to the efforts of Plant Engineering, the existing walking trail was refurbished with mulch and markers on trees. There are two routes that can be taken; one is 2.34 miles and the other is 2.18 miles. Both trails circle Lab property and promise a good workout. A map of the trails is available on the Web at http://jlab.org/serv/interface.html.
MOU signed with North Carolina Central
In late October, Jefferson Lab and North Carolina Central University (NCCU) signed a Memorandum of Understanding (MOU) that creates two bridged faculty positions. The MOU is designed to aid the Department of Physics at NCCU in maintaining an internationally prominent department and a continuing presence by faculty and students at Jefferson Lab. NCCU will provide Jefferson Lab with additional manpower over the next several years which will contribute to the experimental program at the Lab. Jefferson Lab will provide NCCU access to resources and the experiments at the Lab to sustain the research effort of NCCU Physics faculty and the education of it students.
Lab employees reach out to the community
Being an integral part of the community is always important at Jefferson Lab. For the past four years, Jefferson Lab employees have been reaching out to the community on the annual United Way Day of Caring. Over the years, Lab employees have painted houses, handed out free food, installed fire alarms, and cleaned up city parks. At this year's event on September 5, eight Jefferson Lab volunteers went as a group to Maryview Nursing Care Center in Suffolk.
The group joined hundreds of volunteers from Hampton Roads who went into the community to lend a hand to those in need of assistance. In the past, Jefferson Lab employees have been placed based on their individual interests. This was the first year that Lab employees worked together at the same site. They took a group of senior citizens for a picnic at the Portsmouth City Park where they grilled hamburgers and hot dogs, and played games. Shilda Williams, Jefferson Lab's United Way Campaign Coordinator, says the event was a success and was fulfilling for those who participated. "It was rewarding to see the looks of appreciation on the faces of the nursing home patients," says Williams. "They really enjoyed the attention and the chance to get away from the home for a while."
"I think it is important for employees to show their interest in the community," says Williams. "It really makes you count your blessings when you see the conditions that some people live in."
As a newcomer to the Peninsula, volunteer Mark Ito of the Physics Division, jumped at the opportunity to get involved in the community. "It is refreshing to stick your head up and out of your own world and your own problems for a day and focus on the concerns of others," says Ito. "You learn a lot about people and you learn a lot about yourself."
In conjunction with the Day of Caring, Jefferson Lab employees also supported the United Way's Fundraising Campaign which started October 14 and ended October 28. Contributions were made through payroll deduction, direct billing, or a one-time payment of cash or check. Employees designated contributions to specific United Way agencies or to targeted areas of need in the community. "Once again, employees have recognized our community's needs, joined together, and responded to those needs," says Williams. "Through the Lab's generosity and commitment, contributions totaled $32,551. I would like to thank all of our employees for their contributions to this year's United Way campaign."
Thanks to Grants
Three scientists recently received more than $400,000 in grants to perform research at Jefferson Lab. Cynthia Keppel and Drew Weisenbeger both received National Science Foundation (NSF) grants, and Howard Fenker was awarded a U.S. Civilian Research and Development Foundation for the Independent States of the Former Soviet Union (CRDF) grant.
Fenker worked on the proposal for the $50,000 CRDF grant in conjuction with Amour Margarian of the Yerevan Physics Institute in Armenia. The grant will support the construction of experimental low pressure gaseous detectors which will be used in the research of the effects of electron nuclear collisions. The detectors will pick out collisions in which a hyper nucleus is created. A hyper nucleus is a nucleus that has a strange particle, which is a particle that possesses a quantum number called strangeness. The quantum number is called strangeness because the particle exists for what is considered, in the world of physics, to be an extremely long time. "In all the experiments here, the first problem you encounter is identifying which of the millions and millions of interactions that take place are interesting, which ones will help you learn about the science that you started this experiment for in the first place. These particular detectors will help pick out the interesting events," said Fenker.
According to Fenker the majority of the money will support research at the Yerevan Institute, which is working in collaboration with Jefferson Lab on this, and several other, experiments. The remaining money will go to Jefferson Lab in order to purchase materials and supplies for the scientists at the Yerevan Institute. The Yerevan Institute has sent some of their scientists to the United States to work along side Jefferson Lab scientists in the application of the various experiments. Margarian is one of the scientists that was sent to the U.S. to work at Jefferson Lab, and it was during Margarian's time in this country that he and Fenker were teamed to draw up the proposal for the CRDF Grant.
"What Jefferson Lab gets out of this is the efforts of the Yerevan scientists that we wouldn't have received otherwise. They will do a lot more work at Jefferson Lab then they would have been able to do with out this funding," said Fenker.
Weisenberger, who worked to receive a $100,000 grant with the help of Margret Saha, a professor at The College of William and Mary, will also allocate the money he is receiving to the construction of a detector. Some money will also fund the employment of student interns who will assist Weisenberger in his research. The radiation detector Weisenberger is developing deals with the imaging of gene products in live animals. The detector will track the brain development of those animals from the embryo stage through adulthood. Currently if a neurologist wants to study a piece of genetic coding used in the development of a section of the brain, it would be necessary to kill the specimen being studied. Molecular Biology techniques would then be used to examine the specific genes. In order to study another stage of development, the process has to be started over again with a new specimen. In essence, this process is like taking still pictures of each stage, and there is no guarantee that one will be able to catch all of the stages one wants to see.
In Weisenberger's project, a detector system that involves two detectors, positioned from different angles above the specimen being studied will be used. The detectors will be used simultaneously in a rotating, scanning motion that will allow three dimensional views and projections to be acquired. "This technique is similar to medical methods used in researching breast cancer. It will allow us to study gene activation patterns without killing the specimen, so now we can study the entire growth of the brain without interruption," said Weisenberger. This process would be more like recording the growth process with a video cassette recorder.
Saha, who is a neural biologist, played a pivotal role in the induction of the experiment's proposal to the NSF. In fact, it was she who was informed of the availability of the NSF Grant and suggested to Weisenberger that he draw up a proposal and submit it. Weisenberger is studying for his doctorate in Applied Science at the College of William and Mary, and much of the expertise needed to perform the research comes from the professors and staff at the college.
Keppel was awarded $297,391 and plans to use the money to support two Hampton University graduate students who are interns at Jefferson Lab; to purchase computers and software for New Kent Middle School in New Kent County; and to purchase a Far-infrared Laser for Hall C.
The Far-infrared Laser will be used to measure the energy-level of the electrons in the beam. According to Keppel, the laser will allow for more precise measurements than the currently used techniques because it is non-destructive to the electron beam. This means readings can be acquired continuously through an experiment. In order to obtain the energy-level measurements, the laser will be aimed at the electron beam, and because the electrons have a much higher energy than the photons from the laser, the laser beam will scatter in a backwards motion off the electron beam. This process is known as Compton Scattering, and by measuring the photon's energy before and after the scattering, the energy levels of the electrons can be deduced. NASA is commissioning the optics of the laser, and is allowing Keppel, with the assistance of NASA Physicist Phil Brockman, to use one of their laboratories for the purpose of the beam energy measurement. Keppel applied for her grant through Hampton University, where she is an assistant professor of Physics.
Witches, the Energizer Bunny, and even Mr. Potato Head did the monster mash on Halloween. The Jefferson Lab Activities Group (JAG) hosted the second annual Monster Mash where employees captured the Halloween spirit with their unusual costumes and ghoulish treats, including an extra-spooky spice cake. The prize for "Best Overall Costume" was awarded to Jim Parkinson for his interpretation of a Playboy Bunny. "Most Original Costume" award went to Tina Menefee as Cryo Woman and Joan Campbell received "Honorable Mention" for her portrayal of a witch.