On Target (October 1999)

Into the Machine: Installation of Second Polarized Electron Gun Boosts Physics Program

BEAMS: Nine-Year-Old Program Continues to Grow, Shine

Protect Yourself: Follow These Tips to Help Prevent Identity Theft, Fraud

Day of Caring: Volunteers Help Community Non-Profit Organizations

Donations Help Hurricane Floyd Victims

Upcoming Events: New JAG Committee Plans Fall Festival, Holiday Parties


DMV Mobile Unit Plans Last Visit for 1999

Bright Spot on the Web

Into the Machine
Installation of second polarized electron gun boosts physics program

When problem-solving is concerned, two heads are said to be better than one. Likewise, JLab's recent installation of a second polarized electron gun is designed to resolve one of physics researchers' most important issues: uninterrupted beam delivery.

"The additional gun helps us maximize the Lab's operational capabilities. We need a stable polarized electron source to meet our user's experimental requirements," explains Charles Sinclair, Injector Group leader. "About 50 percent of the Lab's experiments require polarized beam; and an even larger fraction of the highly rated experiments need polarized beam. We schedule the accelerator to deliver beam to two or three halls simultaneously, so in practice, we need to run the polarized source 100 percent of the time. The Lab has been running polarized beam since April 1998 and plans to continue polarized beam operation into the spring of 2001 - as far as the long-term schedule is developed."

polarized electron gun system
A close-up look at the Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility's new polarized electron gun system.

The second gun was designed, built, tested offline, and installed in nine months. Both guns sit horizontally, a change from the first polarized gun's vertical orientation. Commissioning of both is nearly complete.

"We've delivered beam to users from both guns," says Injector Group staff scientist Paul Rutt. "We haven't fixed all the bugs, but many of the issues have been resolved. Now, when one gun needs work done on its photocathode, we can deliver beam to the physics program from the other gun. I wouldn't call it a perfectly seamless operation, but we've definitely made progress."

Several other improvements were made to the polarized source at the same time the new guns were installed. For example, in the past, temperature fluctuations near the lasers which illuminate the polarized gun cathodes affected beam stability, so an air-conditioned housing has been built around the three lasers. Improved laser controls and electronics hardware were also installed. Work is in progress to remotely reconfigure the laser systems so that switching beam delivery between the polarized guns can be done with the push of a single button.

"We're staying on the cutting edge of laser technology, even inventing new technology," says John Hansknecht, Injector Group engineering coordinator. "The experimenters will always want more current and better polarization. We are constantly looking for ways of getting higher laser power and more efficient photocathodes. Hopefully we'll find ways to keep everyone satisfied."

Happy Users, Productive Experiments

A key component of both electron guns is a small disc of material that sits within each injector's ultra-high-vacuum chamber. Made of gallium arsenide, this dime-size photocathode (often called a crystal or wafer) emits electrons when struck by laser light. Yet the wafer loses its emitting properties over time, as more electrons are delivered. Although the laser can be refocused on different sections of the photocathode, eventually the material's effectiveness decreases and the entire crystal must be replaced.

Injector Group
The Injector Group includes (front row, l to r) Jim Clark, Kim Ryan, Reza Kazimi, Matt Poelker, Group Leader Charlie Sinclair and Paul Rutt, and in the back row (l to r) Peter Hartmann, Michael Steigerwald, Tony Day and John Hansknecht. Injector Group member Philip Adderley was unavailable for the photo.

During replacement, Injector Group personnel must open the ultra-high vacuum chamber within the injector. Although this process lasts just minutes, reestablishing the ultra-high vacuum - better than that found on the surface of the moon - can take up to 50 hours and involves enclosing the gun in an oven-like structure. The entire array is subsequently heated to a temperature of 250 degrees Celsius (482 degrees Fahrenheit). The net effect of the heat is to desorb or drive out gas molecules from the gun's internal surfaces that otherwise would physically impair photocathode operation.

"Electrons are found everywhere," says Philip Adderley, a high-vacuum technologist with the Injector Group. "If you have residual gas molecules remaining as you accelerate electrons from your cathode, you produce oppositely charged ions. These ions are heavier than electrons and can damage the cathode as they are accelerated into the cathode material. The better the vacuum the lower the number of these possible interactions."

The presence of two polarized guns enables one to be taken out of operation as necessary, while the other continues to supply beam. With planned upgrades to the laser system and continued investigations of more efficient and durable photocathode materials, researchers should be able to take full advantage of their allotted beam time in the coming months and years.

"We now have a more versatile injector system that should provide beam to the physics users without interruption," says Matt Poelker, a staff scientist with the Injector Group. "It's been a good project. A lot of challenges, sure, but people seem to be pretty happy."

"Because of the work of our Injector Group, the Lab is now a worldwide leader in polarized beam technology," says Accelerator Division Associate Director Christoph Leemann. "They are an exceptionally talented team who have in a sustained effort over many years, worked long hours and met the challenges they've encountered in their effort to develop and enhance the accelerator's polarized beam capabilities. The group has the Lab poised to meet all of our user's near and mid-term needs.

Nine-Year-Old Program Continues to Grow, Shine

by James Schultz

For children who rarely venture past the several blocks that encompass their neighborhood or school, the notion of an electron accelerator may seem as farfetched as piloting a spaceship to Jupiter. But for legions of local middle-school students, Jefferson Lab's Becoming Enthusiastic About Math and Science program (BEAMS) has opened entirely new landscapes of the mind and imagination.

Proof of the program's effectiveness came earlier this year with the issuance of Standards of Learning (SOL) scores for the first group of SOL-tracked middle schoolers to have participated in consecutive BEAMS courses in sixth, seventh and eighth grades. The percentage of eighth-grade students passing the SOL math test more than doubled, from 24 to 49 percent. The increase was also striking in the science component of the exam: 65 percent in 1999 passed, versus 46 percent in 1998.

"You see the kids and how they react. You hear their stories," says Jan Tyler, JLab's science education manager. "They definitely remember the experiences they've had at the Lab. But when you deal with the taxpayers or anybody else who wonders where the money is going, it helps to have results in black and white to prove that you're accomplishing what you say. We're hopeful scores will increase even more this coming year."

During its first year, in 1991, the BEAMS program welcomed seven classes over a 12 week period. The program has grown over the years and presently offers 60 classes throughout the entire school year, as well as a variety of summer activities.

Volunteering Is Key

During the academic year, for five consecutive days during school hours, the students and their teachers are immersed in Lab-related science and math events and activities conducted with the help of volunteer scientists, engineers and technicians. Courses are presented in an on-site classroom, outdoors, in the staff cafeteria, in laboratories, at assembly areas and within the accelerator site. A family night is held for the participating students' families to reinforce the BEAMS experience.

BEAMS students
BEAMS students make aluminum foil boats and test them as part of their Design and Engineering activity.

In all, some 14,000 students and 300 teachers from area school divisions in Newport News, Hampton, Williamsburg/James City County and York County have participated in the program. "The kids really get excited," says Steve Gagnon, a BEAMS science education technician who's been with program seven years. "You get to use stuff and do things that you usually can't in school. Kids get to see that scientists aren't geeks in white lab coats, but people with interesting lives who do fun work."

According to manager Tyler, the key to BEAM's success is the willingness of Lab staff to donate their time as program teachers, presenters and guides. Without this 100-plus-and-growing volunteer corps, BEAMS' luster would quickly dim. "The BEAMS staff is a small part of this," she says. "Without our Lab volunteers we wouldn't have a program. They're the ones that make BEAMS happen."

Enthusiastic evaluation results have sparked the "BEAMS at Siemens" program, a replica of the Lab's program, at Siemens, Inc. in Newport News. Siemens hosts four classes of BEAMS students each year. BEAMS has also been replicated by NASA-Goddard Space Flight Center - its Students United with NASA BEAMS, or SUNBEAMS - conducts 20 classes each year.

At JLab a new science education component was introduced early this month. The Friday Physics Fest will be held in the CEBAF Center auditorium on the second Friday of every month for grades three to twelve. In addition, plans are underway to offer local teachers refresher courses in science and math, with Lab-issued certificates of recertification and possible college credits.

Protect Yourself:

Follow These Tips to Help Prevent Identity Theft, Fraud

Several Department of Energy Savannah River Site (SRS) employees have had the misfortune of falling victim to credit and/or identity fraud. They have been plagued by unauthorized credit cards with limits in the tens of thousands of dollars being acquired in their names, numerous unauthorized accounts opened, and months and even years spent trying to repair the damage to their credit.

All an identity snatcher needs is a name and social security number. How do thieves steal your identity? By using information provided on your driver's license, personal checks (name, address, social security number, birthdate) or by using some of the methods mentioned below.

How identity thieves do it

  1. Mail theft. The thief steals your junk mail, newly issued credit cards, preapproved credit card offers, paid bills out of your mailbox, bank and credit card statements.
  2. Change-of-address or unlisted phone number scams. The imposter files a change-of-address card so the victim's mail is sent elsewhere or calls the phone company pretending to be the victim requesting his number be unlisted. The change-of-address allows the thief to obtain the documents needed to impersonate the victim. The unlisted phone number makes it difficult for a bank to follow-up and verify the new credit card should be sent to a different address than that filed with the Social Security Administration.
  3. Dumpster-diving. Thieves fish through garbage bins for credit card slips, loan applications, bank statements and medical records. Some businesses don't shred these documents.
  4. Inside job. The thief has access to personnel records or credit card receipts through their regular job. Members of fraud rings have been known to pose as temporary workers or cleaning staff. Identity theft - the stealing of personal information to commit financial fraud - is one of the fastest-growing white-collar crimes in the nation. There were more than 500,000 victims of this type of crime last year. Protect your privacy - don't become the next victim.

How to protect yourself

Individuals should take the following steps to protect themselves.

    • Remove your name from the mailing lists of credit reporting bureaus Equifax, Experian, and Trans Union by calling 1-888-567-8688.
    • Contact Trans Union Fraud Victim Assistant Department at 1-800-680-7289 and request that a "Credit Fraud Prevention Toolkit" be mailed to you. It provides many helpful hints, in addition to those listed below, to assist you in proactively promoting a fraud-resistant credit profile.
    • Contact all three major credit card reporting agencies and request that a Protective Statement be added to your credit file. With this statement in your file, credit grantors will know that you always need to be contacted directly before credit is granted in your name.

    If you are not a victim and they decline, be proactive until they agree.

    • Trans Union 1-800-680-7289
      Experian 1-800-301-7195
      Equifax 1-800-525-6285
    • Request annually from each of the above agencies a copy of your credit report to check for inaccuracies or fraudulent activity.
    • Cut up or destroy pre-approved credit offers that you don't intend to accept before throwing them in the trash. This should also be done with credit card statements, bank statements, credit card receipts or any other document that contains personal information. You may want to use a cross-cut shredder which prohibits anyone being able to put the strips together to recreate the document.
    • Carry only essential identification in your purse, wallet or automobile. Avoid carrying documents like a Social Security card, passport, voter registration, or any document containing this information, unless absolutely necessary.
    • Reduce the number of credit cards you have and use, and carry only what you need.
    • Keep a list of all your credit accounts, bank accounts, and the telephone numbers of customer service departments in a secure place should you need to call the company if they are stolen.
    • Do not have your Social Security number or driver's license number printed on your checks.
    • When filling out checks, use a permanent marker. There have been reports of criminals using chemical processes to remove the ink and filling it in as a blank check.
    • Consider listing only your name and number, no address in the telephone book.
    • Avoid giving out your credit card or other personal information over the phone or Internet.
    • Never use your mother's maiden name as a password for your bank account. The name is on your birth certificate, which is a public record.
    • Get your name off mailing lists for preapproved lines of credit by participating in the credit bureaus' Opt-Out Program. Call 1-888-567-8688. Opt-Out may expire after two years or be made permanent. Listen carefully to the message to choose the option you want. Also, to prevent credit bureaus from granting credit without your verbal permission, place a security alert on your account.
    • Remove your name from marketers' unsolicited mailing lists. Write to the Direct Marketing Association's Mail Preference Service, P.O. Box 9008, Farmingdale, NY 11735.
    • Close all stagnant credit card accounts - don't just cut up cards.
    • Beware of shoulder-surfers when using an ATM or public phone or when using any document with personal information. Use your hands to cover what you're doing, so thieves can't determine your personal information - whether they're nearby or across the room with binoculars or a video camera.

    Day of Caring
    Volunteers Help Community Non-Profit Organizations

    More than a dozen Lab employees participated in the United Way's "Day of Caring" on Sept 9. It is a day set aside each September when area businesses and organizations allow their employees to take part in volunteer projects helping community nonprofit organizations during normal work hours.

    Fourteen Lab employees raised their hands this year to volunteer for projects ranging from constructing a deck for a local YMCA to doing office work and delivering meals to the housebound.

    Day of Caring participants
    JLab participants include (l to r) Rick Gonzales, Lee Broeker, Bill Kozma, Ivy Thomas, Christine Hummel, Shilda Williams and Don Bullard. Volunteers not available for the photo include Brian Carpenter, Isiah Daniels, Tiffany McKinney, Mark Ito, Pat Morton, Christine Snetter and April Rose.

    Ivy Thomas, Business Services, has participated in Day of Caring for the last five years. "For four of those five years, I've donated my time to help senior citizens. They're so appreciative of the time I spend with them and the help I provide - that's my reward. I look forward to this every year. Shilda (Williams) and I team up and go to the same places."

    This was the first year for Accelerator operator, April Rose. She weeded and mulched flower beds and helped with painting projects at On the Hill Cultural Arts Center. "I was really tired at the end of the day," Rose said, "but I felt really great. I met many people from area businesses and NASA. This is a fantastic way to help the community. I had a great time and I'm already looking forward to doing this again next year."

    Thanks to cooperative supervisors, Rick Gonzales and Isiah Daniels, both from Accelerator Division, returned to a local YMCA the next day to finish a deck they started building on Sept. 9. "We got rained out Thursday afternoon, but we finished the deck the next day and it turned out fine," Gonzales said. "I was delighted that our bosses were gracious enough to give us time off to finish the job."

    The Lab has participated in Day of Caring since 1994, according to project coordinator Shilda Williams. "Thanks to all our hard-working volunteers. We had our best turn out ever this year."

    Donations Help Hurricane Floyd Victims

    Donations to help people devastated by Hurricane Floyd rolled into Jacquie Bacon's office through Oct. 8.

    The final tally included $940 in financial contributions to the Red Cross hurricane relief fund and numerous bags of clothing, children's toys and books, cleaning supplies and a variety of household items.

    The money contributions have been sent to the American Red Cross office in Hampton. J.K. Hill & Assoc. donated a truck and labor costs to pack up and deliver all of the other donations to Yorktown Naval Weapons Station on Oct. 9. Donations from across Hampton Roads were delivered to Yorktown for transport to areas devastated by the hurricane.

    "I want to thank everyone who helped out after the devastation and destruction of Hurricane Floyd," Bacon said. A special thanks to John Hicks and J.K. Hill for delivering the truckload of items to Yorktown on a Saturday morning, and to the Eurest staff and Marty Hightower for their help in collecting donations.

    Upcoming Events
    New JAG Committee Plans Fall Festival, Holiday Parties

    The Jefferson Lab Activities Group (JAG) recently seated a new committee that is already busy planning a number of annual and special recreational events. JAG sponsors activities and events ranging from the annual holiday parties to team sports and special interest clubs. JAG provides something to interest just about everyone at the Lab, says Susan Esp, new JAG chair.

    First off this month is the Halloween Fall Festival scheduled for Friday, Oct. 29, from 3-7 p.m. behind the Residence Facility. The event will include food, beverages, pumpkin hurling, a costume contest, a 6-person team tug-of-war and other contests, and a bonfire. Volunteers are needed to help with food presentation, costume and competition judging, beverage tent, decorating and the bonfire. Contact Betty Beeler at ext. 7491 or email her at beeler@jlab.org to volunteer.

    Join the JAG for Casino Night in Atlantic City on Saturday, Nov. 6. A bus will leave the CEBAF Center parking lot at 6 a.m. People should arrive at the CEBAF Center parking lot by 5:30 a.m. as the bus will leave promptly at 6 a.m. The bus will stop along the Eastern Shore for breakfast and arrive at the Tropicana in Atlantic City by 2 p.m. After enjoying the casinos and a free dinner buffet, participants can watch JLab's very own David Hamlette, Radiation Control Group, compete in an international body building competition. The bus will depart AC at midnight Saturday and arrive back in Newport News around 6:30 a.m. Nov. 7.

    Tickets are $38 per person ($34 for senior citizens) and include bus fare, a free buffet meal and casino tokens. Tickets to the body building competition are $25 per person. Contact Betty Beeler, ext. 7491; or Becky Nevarez, ext. 7236 to sign up.

    Each year the JAG sponsors the Lab's holiday parties and a toy drive for the U.S. Marines Toys For Tots program. Collection boxes will be placed in the main entrance areas of all major Lab buildings. New, unwrapped toys may be placed in the boxes through Dec. 11.

    This year's Space Age Children's Holiday Party is set for Saturday, Dec. 11 from 10 a.m.-noon in CEBAF Center. The adult holiday party will follow on Saturday, Dec. 18, from 7 p.m.-1 a.m., at the Holiday Inn Hampton. Watch for more information about these events in this newsletter, on JAG bulletin boards and on the JAG web page.

    The committee holds an open forum period at the beginning of each JAG meeting. The next meeting time and agenda are available for review on the JAG web page. Anyone wishing to attend an open forum is asked to contact Susan Esp and provide her with discussion items so they may be added to the agenda. "We welcome your ideas and suggestions," Esp said.

    For more information about the JAG, contact Esp at ext. 7520 or visit the JAG web page at www.jlab.org/intralab/committees/jag/.

    Help JAG's aluminum can recycling efforts If you notice a Lab aluminum can recycling bin that needs to be emptied, please contact Steve Hickson, email hickson@jlab.org or call ext. 7038.

    Member Area MS Ext.
    Susan Esp, Chair Trailer City 16B 7520
    Becky Nevarez, Co-Chair ACC 52A 7236
    Betty Beeler, Archivist VARC 28H 7491
    Sandy Philpott, Treasurer Trailer City 16A 7152
    Shauna Cannella, Secretary CC 12B 6388
    Jacqueline Bacon CC upper 12C 5117
    Cheryl Batten VARC 28D 6269
    Richard Dickson MCC 85A 5082
    Kelly Hanifan ARC 7A 7668
    Stephen Hickson Trailer City 16B 7038
    Dave Kausch VARC 28G 7674
    Joseph Manak CC 12H 5829


    Lab Address, Service Awards Set for Nov. 16
    The 1999 State of the Lab Address and Service Awards ceremony is set for Tuesday, Nov. 16. The annual event will begin at 2 p.m. in the CEBAF Center auditorium.

    Lab Director Hermann Grunder will update staff on major Lab projects, then congratulate this year's 75 Service Award recipients. For the first time in the history of the Lab, employees with 15 years service will be honored. Eight people have worked at the Lab for 15 years. Staff with five and 10 years of service also will be honored.

    Deadline Nears for HUGS Program Applications
    The 14th annual Hampton University Graduate Studies (HUGS) program was held at Jefferson Lab this summer. During the lectures and seminars, students engaged in both the experimental and theoretical aspects of the physics research being conducted with Jefferson Lab's accelerator.

    Physicists from across the country presented lectures on the most current research. Nearly 30 students representing 20 institutions from six countries participated in the event.

    In December a call for applications will go out for the 15th annual HUGS, planned for early summer 2000. Additional information is available from: Dr. Jose' Goity, Department of Physics, Hampton University, P.O. Box 6172, Hampton VA 23668 or email him at goity@jlab.org or call (757) 269-7345.

    Science Series Features 'A Chemical Musical'
    Jefferson Lab's second Fall Science Series event is set for 7 p.m. Thursday, Nov. 18 in the CEBAF Center auditorium. "A Chemical Musical" will be performed by local members of the Tidewater Alliance of Chemistry Teachers: Esther Freeman, Richard Furlough, Janet Marie Gidley and Ed Sznyter.

    It is described as a clever chemical demonstration set to popular music that will make you feel like dancing. The event is free and open to students and adults interested in science.

    Share Favorite Recipe with Chef Woodard
    Do you have a favorite recipe you would like to see served in the Lab cafeteria? Chef James Woodard is looking for new main entree, side dish and dessert recipes to try.

    Submit a recipe and if Chef James uses it, you will receive a free lunch or any item free up to the cost of lunch at the cafeteria. Lab staff and users are invited to send meat, vegetable, rice, pasta, sandwich, salad, soup, casserole, fruit, cake, pie, cookie or brownie recipes to Woodard.

    All recipes must be printed clearly, list all ingredients and measurements and have complete preparation instructions. Be sure to include your name, division and work extension or e-mail so cafeteria staff can notify you if your recipe has been selected. Email recipes to woodard@jlab.org.

    United Way's Annual Fund drive Oct. 18-29
    The United Way's annual fund drive at Jefferson Lab runs from Oct. 18-29. The theme of this year's appeal is "Breakthrough 99: Making a Difference Every Day!"

    According to this year's campaign coordinator, Yvonne Scott, Administration Division, the Lab's goal is $30,000 - unchanged from last year. Contributions support valuable programs and services for families and children at risk by providing affordable day care, family and crisis counseling, substance abuse prevention, youth programs, and other vital services in local communities.

    All contributions are tax deductible, and pledges can be made through payroll deduction, direct billing on a monthly or quarterly basis, or a one-time payment by cash or check. Donations of any size are welcome.

    Pledge cards should be returned to Yvonne Scott, Human Resources and Services Department, MS 28D, by Oct. 29. Informational material and contribution forms have been distributed across the Lab. If you would like to participate and did not receive an appeal form, call Scott at ext. 7502

    SURA Wins Award

    Danny Lloyd and T.J. Glauthier
    Danny Lloyd and T.J. Glauthier

    Danny Lloyd, SURA's Small Business Program manager (left), accepts the Secretary of Energy's Small Business Award (Special Performance) on behalf of SURA from the Deputy Secretary and Chief Operating Officer of the Department of Energy, T.J. Glauthier. The award recognizes exceptional achievements by prime contractors in the small business area.

    SURA exceeded all of its goals for procurement dollars awarded to small, small disadvantaged, and small women-owned businesses during FY 1998. SURA has received the award five of the six years it has been presented. "This recognition was achieved through the hard work of all Lab employees," Lloyd said. "It takes team effort from our planners, engineers, and technical and administrative staff to achieve and maintain these high standards."

    DMV Mobile Unit Plans Last Visit for 1999

    The Department of Motor Vehicles mobile customer service center's last visit to the Lab for 1999 is Nov. 22. Take advantage of this convenient opportunity to take care of your driving and vehicle needs, or just stop by the mobile customer service center to get your questions answered.

    The DMV mobile unit will be in the parking lot on the back side of Building 19 (the Forestry Building) and will be open from 9 a.m. - 4 p.m. to serve all walk-in customers. The mobile unit will continue visiting the Lab regularly next year

    • Take your driver's license written and skills tests
    • Receive original driver's license or a duplicate driver's license
    • Renew a driver's license
    • Take the Commercial Driver's License written test
    • Receive a Commercial Driver's License
    • Receive driving record reports
    • Update driver information (address, name changes, etc.)
    • Obtain photo identification cards
    • Register, renew and title vehicles
    • Obtain vehicle decals

    Bright Spot on the Web

    Editor's note: If you have or know of a website that could be informative or useful to Jefferson Lab staff, call the public affairs office at ext. 7689 or e-mail Linda Ware (ware@jlab.org).

    The Department of Energy's Office of Scientific and Technical Information has a new Internet service available: PubSCIENCE! This database, accessible at www.osti.gov/pubsci/, provides access to peer-reviewed journal literature in the physical sciences and other disciplines of interest to DOE. Public access to this resource is possible through OSTI's partnership with the U.S. Government Printing Office. PubSCIENCE lets users search across hundreds of peer-reviewed journal titles. Over 20 publishers currently participate in PubSCIENCE and additional publishers will be added in the coming months.


    Jefferson Science Associates, LLC, manages and operates the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, or Jefferson Lab, for the U.S. Department of Energy's Office of Science. JSA is a wholly owned subsidiary of the Southeastern Universities Research Association, Inc. (SURA).

    DOE’s Office of Science is the single largest supporter of basic research in the physical sciences in the United States and is working to address some of the most pressing challenges of our time. For more information, visit https://energy.gov/science