ES&H Manual

Fire Protection Supplement

Chapter 1:

Site Specific Requirements



1.0             Purpose


The design, operation, and maintenance of fire protection systems is governed by applicable industry codes and standards principally from the National Fire Protection Association (NFPA), as modified by Department of Energy (DOE) fire safety criteria and Highly Protected Risk (HPR) status, or the best-protected class of industrial risks. The purpose of this chapter is to list specific design and operational requirements observed by Jefferson Lab that may be open for interpretation within these standard requirements.


2.0             Scope


The following requirements are incorporated into design planning. These requirements do not replace building code or local construction code requirements. When applicable the more restrictive requirement is used.


2.1              Design Criteria for Construction of New Facilities


2.1.1        Underground Water Distribution Piping (Reference: Facility Management (FM) Global Property Loss Prevention Data Sheet 3-10)

·         Water Supply Mains: 

o    NFPA 24, Standard for the Installation of Private Fire Service Mains and Their Appurtenances, is the applicable NFPA standard for design and installation of water supply mains.

·         Adequacy:

o    The water supply should be designed to meet the following combined demands for a period of not less than two hours: 1) largest single fire suppression system; 2) 500 gallons per minute (gpm) for fire hose streams; and 3) uninterruptable domestic and process demands.

·         Reliability:

o    The water supply and distribution system should be designed to prevent a single failure from causing the system to fail to meet its demand. Design features should include looped and gridded distribution piping with sectional valves.

·         The minimum pipe size is 8-inch ductile iron pipe (AWWA C151, Pressure Class 350). Larger pipe is used to meet hydraulic calculations.

·         A looped main arrangement is used where more than three services (hydrants plus risers) are anticipated or when the main will exceed 300 feet. The looped main is taped off the existing private 12‑inch DIP main that traverses the site.

·         Underground gate valves are installed in the looped main to allow isolation of the water system. No more than five services are isolated at any time.

·         A post indicator valve assembly with a gate valve is used at the underground main for every incoming fire line to a building.

·         Dry barrel fire hydrants conforming to the City of Newport News standard, are used. Each hydrant is furnished with 3 nozzles with National (American) fire hose coupling screw thread. There are 2 1/2 -inch hose nozzles placed 180 degrees apart, and one 4-inch pumper nozzle.

·         Hydrant spacing provides 300 feet of hose line access to every window and door opening of a building. There should be a minimum of two hydrants per building and branch piping between the water main and a hydrant should not be greater than 300 feet.

·         Hydrants are not closer than 40 feet to buildings.

·         The incoming fire line passing through a foundation wall or floor slab on grade are installed with the minimum 1-inch to 3-inch radial clearance around the pipe and the clear space filled with asphalt mastic or similar flexible waterproofing material.


2.1.2        Building Construction

·         New facilities (non–relocatable) exceeding 5,000 sq. ft. of floor area must be of Type 1or Type II construction, as defined in applicable building codes.

·         Roof coverings shall be Class A per ASTM E108, Standard Test Methods for Fire Tests of Roof Coverings, or Underwriters Laboratories (UL) 790, Standard Test Methods for Fire Tests of Roof Coverings. Metal deck roof systems shall meet the requirements of Class I construction as defined in FM Global Property Loss Prevention Data Sheets 1-28R, Roof Systems, and 1-31, Metal Roof Systems.


2.1.3        Building Services

·         Transformers installed inside buildings shall be of a dry type, with no combustible dielectric fluids. Outside transformers shall be located and protected in accordance with FM Global Property Loss Prevention Data Sheet 5-4, Transformers.


2.1.4        Building Fire Suppression

·         Automatic Sprinkler Systems:

o    NFPA 13, Standard for the Installation of Sprinkler Systems, is the applicable NFPA standard for design and installation of automatic sprinkler systems.

·         Sprinkler flow requirements are hydraulically calculated. 

o    Hydraulically designed sprinkler systems shall be designed for a supply pressure of at least 10 percent, but not less than 10 pounds per square inch (psi), below the water supply curve to provide a pressure margin to accommodate minor system modifications or degradation of the water supply and sprinkler systems that may occur over time.  

·         Industrial occupancies, other than experimental areas, have a minimum sprinkler design density of Ordinary Hazard Group 2 with a 1500 ft2 area of sprinkler operation.

·         Industrial occupancies in experimental areas have a minimum sprinkler design density of Ordinary Hazard Group 2 with a 3000 ft2 area of sprinkler operation.

·         All other occupancies have a minimum sprinkler design density of Ordinary Hazard Group 1 with a 1500 ft2 area of sprinkler operation.

·         Double interlock preaction sprinkler systems are installed using galvanized steel pipe.


2.1.5        Building Fire Detection

·         NFPA 72, National Fire Alarm and Signaling Code, is the applicable NFPA standard for design, installation, and maintenance of fire detection and alarm systems

·         Buildings are designed with fire detection systems that comply with the use group requirements.

·         Fire alarm control panels are compatible with the Siemens Network Command Center.

·         A building’s fire alarm system includes emergency voice/alarm communication.

·         Underground and experimental areas include Very Early Smoke Detection Apparatus (VESDA) in addition to the minimum fire code required initiating appliances.


2.1.6        Building Life Safety

·         10 C.F.R. Part 851 provides requirements for worker safety including life safety from fire. NFPA 101 is the applicable NFPA code for life safety from fire per Appendix A, Section 2 of 10 C.F.R. Part 851. Additional means of egress requirements may be provided within the applicable building code per Appendix A, Section 2 of 10 C.F.R. Part 851; if any conflicts exist, Section 2.2.6 of this Standard addresses resolution. Performance based designs, in accordance with NFPA 101, may be applied to support equivalency requests in which strict compliance is not practical.


3.0             References


·         DOE-STD-1066-2016, Fire Protection

·         FM Global Data Sheets

·         NFPA Codes and Standards – Current Editions

·         International Building Codes – Current Virginia Acceptance


Refer to ES&H Manual Chapter 2410 Hazard Issues and Contractual Commitments for additional applicable references and requirements.


4.0             Revision Summary


Periodic Review – 01/03/19 – no changes per TPOC  

Revision 0.3 – 06/02/16 – Periodic Review; updated TPOC from D.Kausch to T.Minga  

Revision 0.2 – 02/10/15 – Added fire hydrant hose thread specification for clarity under paragraph 2.1.1

Revision 0.1 – 09/17/13 – Periodic Review; clarified and added requirements for design planning









Fire Protection Department

Tim Minga





This document is controlled as an on line file.  It may be printed but the print copy is not a controlled document.  It is the user’s responsibility to ensure that the document is the same revision as the current on line file.  This copy was printed on 1/10/2019.