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Glossary of Integrated Safety Management Terms

ACCELERATOR SAFETY ENVELOPE (ASE) - A set of physical and administrative conditions that define the bounding conditions for safe operation at an accelerator facility.
At JLab the ASE is documented in the Final Safety Authorization Document (FSAD) and is based on the safety analysis documented in the FSAD.

ACTIVITY - A subset of a project describing floor-level work comprised of one or more tasks.

ADMINISTRATIVE CONTROLS - Provisions related to organization and management, procedures, record keeping, assessment, and reporting necessary to ensure safe operation of a facility.
At JLab, examples of administrative controls include operating limits in procedures and postings (i.e., radiological control and general safety signage).

AUTHORIZATION BASIS - A set of documents or requirements upon which a decision is made by DOE whether to authorize the commencement or continuation of activities.
At JLab, the DOE based its approval of activities on the safety basis contained in the FSAD.

CHANGE CONTROL - A process that ensures all changes are properly identified, reviewed, approved, implemented, tested, and documented in a controlled manner.

CONTROLS - Administrative and engineering mechanisms that can affect the processes in a facility in such a manner as to effect the health and safety of the public and workers, or the protection of the environment.
Example:  Training programs (administrative) and interlocks (engineering).

CRAD - Criteria and review approach document. See also Lines of Inquiry.

ENGINEERING CONTROLS - Measures to eliminate or reduce exposure to a physical hazard through the use of engineered machinery or equipment.
Example: a protective housing around a laser beam or a fail-safe interlock on a component so it will automatically go into a safe mode if the component malfunctions.

ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT SYSTEM - The part of the overall management system that includes organization structure, planning activities, responsibilities, practices, procedures, processes, and resources for developing, integrating, achieving, reviewing, and maintaining the environmental policy; a continuing cycle of planning, implementing, evaluating, and improving processes and actions undertaken to achieve environmental goals.

FINAL SAFETY AUTHORIZATION DOCUMENT (FSAD) - The document containing the results of a safety analysis for an accelerator facility pertinent to understanding the risks of the proposed undertaking.
At JLab, the FSAD documents the hazards associated with CEBAF and FEL operations as well as the factors that mitigate the associated risks.

"FLOOR-LEVEL" PROCEDURES - Detailed instructions used by technicians, researchers, and other workers to directly accomplish work activities or tasks.

HAZARD - A source of danger (i.e., material, energy source, or operation) with the potential to cause illness, injury, or death to personnel or damage to a facility or to the environment.

HAZARD ANALYSIS - A process used to characterize the elements of risk.  The results of the hazard analysis are the identification of unacceptable risks and the selection of means of controlling or eliminating them.

HAZARD CONTROLS - Measures to eliminate, limit, or mitigate hazards to workers, the public, or the environment.  Hazard controls include physical, design, structural, and engineering features (engineering controls); safety management programs; administrative controls; and other controls necessary to provide adequate protection from hazards.

HIERARCHY of CONTROLS - (1) elimination of the hazards, (2) engineering controls, (3) work practices and administrative controls, and (4) personal protective equipment. 

INTEGRATED SAFETY MANAGEMENT - The DOE approach for systematically integrating safety into management and work practices at all levels so that missions are accomplished while protecting the public, the worker, and the environment.
ISM is the approach as specified by DOE to JLab.

INTEGRATED SAFETY MANAGEMENT SYSTEM - A safety management system that provides a formal, organized process whereby people plan, perform, assess, and improve the safe conduct of work efficiently and in a manner that ensures protection of workers, the public, and the environment. This management system is used to implement ISM to systematically integrate safety into management and work practices at all levels so that missions are accomplished while protecting the public, the worker, and the environment. At JLab, the system includes, but is not limited to, safety and environmental requirements and processes contained in JLab program documents (i.e., ES&H Manual, Environmental Management System Plan, Quality Assurance Plan, Radiation Protection Program), their implementing procedures (i.e., QA procedures, EM procedures) and project specific procedures (i.e., SOPs, OSPs, TOSPs, Accelerator Operations Directives).

ISM CHAMPION - DOE employees designated to support their line management in implementing ISM and serving on the ISM Champions Council.  The DOE ISM Champion is designated by the Deputy Secretary and chairs the ISM Champions Council.  Each DOE Secretarial office and field office designates an ISM Champion to support them in ISM implementation activities.
A link to the ISM Champions website can be found on the JLab ISM website by clicking on Important ISM Links.

ISO STANDARD 14001 - Internationally recognized voluntary environmental management system standard that provides organizations with the elements of an effective environmental management system that can be integrated with other management requirements to help organizations to achieve environmental and economic goals.

LINE MANAGEMENT - Any management level within the line organization, including contractor management, that is responsible and accountable for directing and conducting work.

LINES of INQUIRY - A representative collection of questions and potential evaluation activities that are applicable to the area being evaluated and are used to evaluate the effectiveness of ES&H and safety management elements.

PERSONAL PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT (PPE) - Equipment which is intended to be worn or held by a person at work which protects that person from risks to his/her health or safety. 

POLLUTION PREVENTION - Reducing or eliminating pollutants, contaminants, hazardous substances, and wastes at the source by modifying production processes, promoting the use of non-toxic or less-toxic substances, implementing conservation techniques, and re-using materials rather than putting them into the waste stream.

PRE-JOB BRIEFING - A review by the supervisor and all workers participating in a work activity, prior to beginning the activity, to ensure a common understanding of the steps necessary to conduct the activity and to ensure workers are aware of hazards and knowledgeable on the proper use of prescribed controls.

PROCEDURE - A document that prescribes a process (a sequence of actions) to be performed to achieve a desired outcome.

QUALIFIED - A determination that an individual has demonstrated the practical skill necessary to perform a work activity in a safe, secure, and environmentally responsible manner.

RISK - The quantitative or qualitative expression of possible harm or loss that considers both the probability that an event will occur and the consequences of that event.

SAFETY - In ISM, the term "safety" is used synonymously with environment, safety, and health (ES&H) to encompass protection of the public, the workers, and the environment [DOE P 450.4].  Safety is a dynamic non-event; a stable outcome produced by constant adjustments to system parameters.  To achieve stability, change in one system parameter must be compensated for by changes in other parameters, through a process of continuous mutual adjustment [Reference: Weick & Sutcliffe].

SAFETY ANALYSIS - A documented process to systematically identify the hazards of a given operation; describe and analyze the adequacy of measures taken to eliminate, control, or mitigate the hazards and risks of normal operation; and identify and analyze potential accidents and their associated risks.
At JLab, the FSAD contains the safety analysis supporting operations authorization.

SAFETY BASIS - Describes the facility hazards and the risks to the workers, the public, and the environment and defines the safety-related equipment, procedures, and practices relied on to adequately control those hazards.
At JLab, the safety basis is documented in the FSAD.

SAFETY CULTURE - The safety culture of an organization is the product of individual and group values, attitudes, competencies, and patterns of behavior that determine the commitment to, and the style and proficiency of, an organization’s health and safety programs.  Organizations with a positive safety culture are characterized by communications founded on mutual trust, by shared perceptions of the importance of safety, and by confidence in the efficacy of preventive measures. 

SAFETY ENVELOPE - The range of conditions covered by the safety documentation of a process or facility under which safe operation is adequately controlled.
The Accelerator Safety Envelope documents the safety limits for the safe operation of the Accelerator facility.

SAFETY PROGRAMS - Programs (required by DOE or other regulatory authority or committed to in the contractor's ISM description) that will be adhered to for a scope of work by a facility or site in support of the work.

SELF-ASSESSMENT - A review, analysis, or evaluation of a program or management system performed by the organization responsible for the program or system to determine whether its implementation is in conformance with established requirements and/or defined expectations.

SUBJECT MATTER EXPERT (SME) - A professional with academic credentials, recognized work experience, or expertise in the field of application.

UNREVIEWED SAFETY ISSUE (USI) - Exists if a proposed change, modification or experiment will either: (1) Significantly increase the probability of occurrence or the consequences of an accident or malfunction of equipment important to safety from that evaluated previously by safety analysis; or, (2) Introduce an accident or malfunction of a different type than any evaluated previously by safety analysis that could result in significant consequences.
At JLab, the previously evaluated conditions are documented in the FSAD and there is a USI procedure that specifies the JLab process.

WALK-DOWN - An onsite review of the work area to identify elements necessary to be considered during the work planning process (i.e., hazard identification, equipment configuration). Walkdowns of work areas may be conducted prior to conducting a work activity to ensure that equipment configurations and general work area are consistent with applicable operating procedures and the required controls are in place. Walkdowns may also be used in conjunction with a pre-job briefing to familiarize a work team with the work area and equipment prior to conduct of an activity.