TITLE:

ES&H Manual

 

DOCUMENT ID:

6132 Appendix T2

Scaffolds

 

 

1.0          Purpose

 

Scaffolding is a temporary structure used to support people and material during construction or repair of buildings or other large structures.  It is usually a modular system made up of metal pipes although it can be made out of other materials.

 

2.0          Scope

 

Actions not presented in this appendix are to be reviewed and approved by the worker’s supervisor prior to implementation.

 

Only a trained scaffold worker may erect, use, and disassemble scaffolds at Jefferson Lab.  Training is specific to the type of scaffold.  Obtain assistance from Industrial Safety or the Material Handling Safety Representative.

 

Jefferson Lab only authorizes the erection and use of scaffolding for its intended purpose. 

 

The most commonly used scaffolds at Jefferson Lab are:

 

 

Baker Type Scaffolding:  Scaffold that is easily transportable.  Narrow in design.  Can be manually moved, if on casters.

Tube and Coupler Type Scaffold: A scaffold system using tubes for posts, bearers, braces, and ties. Special couplers connect the parts.  Casters may be used.

 

 

 

Tubular Welded Frame Scaffold: A scaffold system using prefabricated welded sections that serve as posts and horizontal bearers.  The deck can be built with (stamped) scaffold grade lumber or manufactured deckboards spanning the end-frames.

   

See ES&H Manual Chapter 6131 Fall Protection Systems for non-scaffold fall protection options for construction activities at four feet or higher; or whenever a person works above dangerous machinery or operations.

 

This appendix is written in coordination with ES&H Manual Chapter 6132 Ladder and Scaffold Safety.  All applicable content within the chapter applies to the process steps outlined in this appendix.

 

3.0          Responsibilities

NOTE:           Management authority may be delegated at the discretion of the responsible manager.

 

3.1            Scaffold Worker

·       Obtain authorization for scaffold use from the appointed Competent Person – Scaffold.

·       Notify your supervisor/SOTR of any health conditions or medication that would affect the safe use of scaffolding. 

·       Wear appropriate personal protection equipment (PPE) when assembling, using, and disassembling scaffolding.

·       When authorized erect and disassemble scaffolding in accordance with manufacturer’s specifications and Jefferson Lab requirements.

 

3.2            Competent Person – Scaffold

·       Complete the following or equivalent as relevant:

o   SAF303A: Baker Type Scaffolding Safety Training

o   SAF303B: Tube and Coupler Type Scaffold Training

o   SAF303C: Tubular Welded Frame Scaffold Safety Training

·       Ensure assigned Scaffold Worker(s) is trained and/or qualified. 

·       Ensure Scaffold Worker(s) is appropriately briefed and/or authorized.

·       Provide scaffold workers with the hazard mitigation training associated with the assigned scaffold.

·       Plan, select, inspect, and maintain scaffold equipment in accordance with manufacture’s specifications and Jefferson Lab requirements.

·       Explain the erection procedure to Scaffold Workers.

·       Monitor scaffold erection.

·       Inspect completed structure before initial use and daily thereafter.

 

3.3            Supervisor/Subcontracting Officer’s Technical Representative (SOTR)

·       Schedule Competent Person – Scaffold for applicable training (SAF303A: Baker Type Scaffolding Safety Training; SAF303B: Tube and Coupler Type Scaffold Training; or SAF303C: Tubular Welded Frame Scaffold Safety Training); or obtain worker’s equivalency qualifications documentation and submit for approval, from Industrial Safety prior to erection and/or work with scaffolds.

·       Assign a Competent Person – Scaffold for the duration of the scaffold work.

·       Review scaffold safety requirements with workers in area.

·       Coordinate with Occupational Medicine if health conditions or medication prevents a worker from using the scaffold.

·       Ensure scaffolding is selected, used, and stored in accordance with manufacturer’s and Jefferson Lab’s requirements.

 

3.4            Industrial Safety

·       Review and, if adequate, accept equivalent training qualification documentation, or

·       Train workers in appropriate scaffold erection, use, and disassembly.

 

4.0          Process Steps

 

Unless otherwise stated authorized scaffold workers, assigned tasks on behalf of Jefferson Lab, may perform the process steps outlined below.

 

4.1            Plan

·       Consider the following when planning work that will require scaffolding:

o   Duration and kind of work to be performed.

o   Location.

o   Scaffold limitations and/or intended use specifications.

o   Load rating: at least four times the maximum intended load.

o   Maintenance requirements.  

o   Material hoist method.

o   Fall protection needed.

o   Weather and environmental conditions.

o   Rescue equipment (particularly for suspended scaffolds).

·       When moving vehicles are present in work area, scaffolding is marked conspicuously with ropes or barricades.

 

4.2            Selection

·       Ensure a ladder, or equivalent safe access method, can be provided to all levels.  (The cross-braces of a scaffold frame are not designed to be used for access.) 

·       Tool, material, and debris containment so objects do not drop from a scaffold.

·       Wheel brakes engagement.  (Factor adequate spacing to allow for engagement at all times, except when movement is required.)

 

4.3            Personal Protective Equipment (PPE)

·       Minimum PPE required:

o   Hardhat

o   Safety glasses

o   Steel-toed shoes.

·       Additional PPE for the work tasks as identified by a Task Hazard Analysis (THA).

 

4.4            Erecting/Dismantling

Jefferson Lab requires all fabricated tubular frame scaffolds (stationary or rolling) be erected and dismantled under the supervision of a Competent Person - Scaffold.  This person:

·       Ensures the correct scaffold system is used,

·       Explains the erection/dismantling procedure,

·       Monitors the erection/dismantling, and

·       Inspects completed structure before initial use and daily thereafter.

 

Scaffolding is erected in accordance with the owner’s manual instructions as authored by the scaffolding manufacturer.  Do not interchange different manufacturers’ components unless they are compatible with the structure and provide additional structural integrity.

 

4.5            Inspection

·       Scaffolding is inspected after assembly, prior to use; and daily thereafter by the competent person.  Use ES&H Manual Chapter 6132 Appendix T3 Scaffold Inspection Checklist.

·       Completed inspection checklists forms are signed and dated by the competent person and attached to the scaffold.  (When the scaffold is disassembled the forms may be disposed of appropriately.)

 

4.6            Repair and Maintenance

Repairs or maintenance to scaffolding may be requested by anyone at Jefferson Lab.

·       Lock the scaffold out of service using the process steps in ES&H Manual 6111 Administrative Control Using Locks and Tags.

·       Contact The Competent Person – Scaffold to determine repair/maintenance requirements. 

·       Upon completion of repairs the scaffold is re-inspected and approved for use in accordance with ES&H Manual Chapter 6132 Appendix T4 Scaffold Inspection Procedure.

·       Upon completion of an acceptable inspection the lock/tag is removed and work may continue.

 

5.0          Safe Work Practices

 

5.1            Foundation

Use an adequate foundation (solid dry ground, concrete, or asphalt) that supports the load of the scaffold, materials, equipment, and workers without collapsing or shifting.  Screw-jack levelers are recommended.  When the ground is soft and cannot support the load use mudsills (lumber) to spread the load of the base plate and legs of the scaffold  

·       Rolling scaffolds may only be used on level, firm surfaces. 

·       Do not use unstable (or crushable) objects such as barrels, boxes, loose brick or concrete blocks to support the scaffold or planks.

 

5.2            Frame

·       Scaffold frames must be square and plumb.

·       Cross braces are used at every frame pair, and locked in place.

·       If uplift is possible, panels must be secured by pins or other equivalent means.

 

5.3            Planking

Platforms must be completely planked.  Gaps < 1 inch are allowed except where scaffold uprights interfere or as necessary for an entrance opening.

·       Fabricated scaffold decks must be labeled for the working load and used accordingly.

·       Sawn lumber:

·       If planking must overlap end-to-end and cannot be secured, a minimum of 12-inch overlap is needed.  Any overlap must be centered over an intermediate support.

·       At end supports, planks must have an overhang of 6 to 12 inches unless cleats or hooks are used to prevent planks from sliding.  Never exceed 12 inches of overhang.

·       Platforms do not deflect more than 1/60 of the span when loaded.

·       Minimum platform width is 18 inches.

 

5.4            Guardrails 

Guardrails are required on all open sides and ends of platforms whenever there is a drop of more than four feet. 

·       Must be greater than 5 x 10 cm (~2 x 4 inch) cross sections, and 0.9 to 1.1-meters (~36 to 42 inches) high.  (Diagonal or X-bracing can only be used in some specific situations.)

·       Cross bracing is acceptable as a complete guardrail system if the crossing point is between 31 and 48 inches above the platform and the ends are no more than 54 inches apart.

·       Cross bracing is acceptable as a single guard rail if it is at least 20 inches and no more than 30 inches above the platform.

·       You do not need guardrails if:

o   Scaffold covers the entire interior of the building or room: wall-to-wall.

o   On sides or ends with < 16-inch gap to the building wall.

 

5.5            Top Rails

·       must be within 38 to 45 inches above the platform, and

·       supported at least every 10 feet.

 

5.6            Toe Boards

Required for open sides more than three meters (~10-feet) off the ground or floor.  They are primarily intended to be a barrier to prevent tools or materials from being knocked off the scaffold: 

·       They must be at least 4 inches (10 cm) high and have a snug fit to the platform along their length.

·       Made of 2 x 4 lumber or the equivalent. 

 

5.7            Screens

If material is stacked higher than a toeboards, or if people work or pass beneath the scaffold, a screen is required between the top rail and toeboard.  (Mid rails may be omitted if a screen is used.)

·       Use 18 gage, 1/2 inch wire mesh or equivalent.

 

5.8            Tipping Restraints (Wall Ties)

Used with free-standing scaffolds with a height-to-base ratio > 4:1*.

·       Vertical Wall Ties at the 4:1 elevation point and every 26-feet thereafter

·       Longitudinal Wall Ties at each end and at 30-foot intervals

 

*NOTES:

  • Use the narrowest base dimension for these decisions.
  • It may be easier to increase the base width or use outriggers for greater stability.

 

5.9            Wire or Fiber Rope

Ensure it is in good condition and graded to support at least six times the intended load.

 

5.10         Access

·       Conventional straight ladders, Type I or IA, secured to the scaffold, extending three feet past the platform.

·       Hook-on ladders made for this purpose.

·       Stair assemblies made for the scaffold system.

·       The scaffold frame itself if:

o   maximum rung spacing no more than 16 3/4 inches

o   rung width at least 12 inches

 

5.11         Repositioning

·       Casters:

o   Roll and swivel freely,

o   have working brakes, and

o   are affixed to the leg.

·       Casters are locked except during intentional moving.

·       When moving:

o   Remove workers, material, and/or equipment from platform(s).

o   Ensure there are no pits, holes, or obstruction along the path.

o   Unlock casters or brakes.

o   Apply force as close to the base as possible,

·       Re-lock the casters/brakes immediately after the move.

 

6.0          Revision Summary

 

Revision 1.1  01/30/14 Updated graphics, description, and training to more accurately reflect scaffolds used at JLab; changed TPoC from NWalker to BManzlak.

Revision 1.0  06/07/10 Updated to reflect current laboratory operations.

 

ISSUING AUTHORITY

TECHNICAL POINT-OF-CONTACT

APPROVAL DATE

REVIEW REQUIRED DATE

REV.

 

 

ESH&Q Division

Bert Manzlak

06/07/10

06/07/15

1.1

 

This document is controlled as an on line file.  It may be printed but the print copy is not a controlled document.  It is the user’s responsibility to ensure that the document is the same revision as the current on line file.  This copy was printed on 2/5/2014.