On Target (July 1997)
On Target (July 1997)
Hall A Completes First Experiment
After a successful commissioning period, physicists have performed a high precision experiment using the two large, well calibrated high resolution spectrometers in Hall A at Jefferson Lab.
Quarks make up the basic building blocks of the atomic nucleus and the nucleons (protons and neutrons) inside it. The strong force which holds the nucleus intact-the so called nuclear force -is mediated by gluons. When the nucleons are far apart, this force can be approximated by the force between two individual nucleons, and this forms the basis for most standard nuclear models which claim to describe the atomic nucleus. When the two nucleons are so close to each other that the distance between their centers is less than the extent of each nucleon (they are basically on top of each other), then the basic description of the nuclear force as just the force between two nucleons becomes invalid and standard nuclear models fail to provide a good description. These regions are very interesting to study as they provide a means to observe the transition from the conventional picture of nuclear forces to the more basic quark-gluon description.
One way to probe these short distance regions in the nucleus is to study the high momentum structure of nuclei. Non-conventional nuclear models predict excess strength in these regions through a mechanism known as nuclear correlations. This was not possible to study in the past as high beam energies with continuous duty cycles and good beam quality are required. At Jefferson Lab, the electron beam has the necessary energy and all the other prerequisites to probe these high momentum regions of the nucleus. In order to locate this excess strength and also to be able to define its characteristics, good precision and high accuracy are required of the detection mechanism. The two high resolution spectrometers in Hall A are specifically designed to meet this need. They take full advantage of the unique characteristics of the electron beam at Jefferson Lab-good beam quality in addition to high beam energy and intensity. One hundred thirty-one scientists from over 33 institutions forming the Hall A collaboration will take part in this experiment. Arun Saha from Jefferson Lab and spokesperson for this experiment will coordinated this effort.
Whitney Selected as Interim Associate Director
Roy Whitney took over the reigns as Acting Associate Director of Administration on July 1, 1997, to fill the vacancy left by Jim Coleman's retirement. In addition to his current duties as Special Assistant to the Director, Senior Scientist, and Head of Computing, Whitney will head Jefferson Lab's administration division. As Associate Director of Administration, Whitney will be responsible for leading Business Services, Human Resources, Plant Engineering, and many vital departments of Lab administration.
Whitney has served as leader of the Computer Center for 13 years and as the User Liaison for four. While at these posts, he has managed the development and maintenance of the Jefferson Lab web site as well as developing a cohesive, user friendly computer environment.
Whitney has been affiliated with federally funded labs for 30 years, experience that will assist him in meeting the challenges as Acting Associate Director of Administration.
"Jefferson Lab is extremely lucky to have someone here at the lab with Roy Whitney's experience who can serve as Acting Associate Director of Administration in this critical time," stated Lab Director Hermann Grunder in announcing Whitney's new post. "He is performing a real service to the organization."
Institutional Plan Reviews Lab's Past, Present, and Future
If the Institutional Plan provides a roadmap for where the Laboratory is going over the next five years, then the Institutional Plan Review is the compass. It is an opportunity for the Department of Energy and particularly, its Director to hear what those plans are and give the Department's approval for the direction the Lab is taking. On June 18, this critical review took place, showcasing what the Lab has accomplished and setting its course for the next five years.
Assistant Secretary and Director of Energy Research Martha Krebs, Peter Rosen, Dave Hendrie and other reviewers heard presentations on such topics as accelerator operations, the nuclear physics program, community outreach, and Environment, Health, and Safety. They also had breakfast with education mentors, lunched with community leaders and met with users in order to receive a full picture of Jefferson Lab. At the close of the day, it was clear that Krebs and her colleagues liked what they saw. "We want to take what we have seen has worked so well here and put it to use at other places," said Krebs.
Peter Rosen recognized the value of using tools like the CEBAF accelerator for other sciences and industry as has been done with the Free Electron Laser. All recognized the importance of Jefferson Lab being an involved, integrated member of the community. "The great relationship that Jefferson Lab has with the city is predicated on being wanted; that strong economic basis is important," agreed Program Director Dave Hendrie. While the On-Site Review was certainly the most visible part of the Institutional Planning process, for months prior, individuals were charged with producing the draft Institutional Plan. This involved meetings and retreats of the Director's Council to set the course for the Lab, writing of various sections of the plan which detail the Lab's priorities and how they will be pursued. Coordinated by Sharon Parkinson and with the editorial assistance of Steve Corneliussen, the Draft plan took shape, and was sent to DOE and posted on the web so that Lab staff could access it for their comments and input. The draft plan is accessible from inside the Lab via the Jefferson Lab Home page and a pocket card similar to what was distributed last year will be made available to all staff.
"The next critical step is the dissemination of the plan and its components throughout the Lab" states Director Hermann Grunder. "Only if each employee owns its goals and objectives and feels a part of it, can we implement our plans effectively to keep the laboratory in the forefront."
Polarized Beam Achieved simultaneously in Halls
Jefferson Lab has recently crossed another milestone in Laboratory history. Halls A and C are conducting experiments using polarized beam. According to Andrew Hutton, Director of Operations, no other lab in the world has had two halls simultaneously measuring polarized beam.
When an electron spins within an atom, while the nucleus, within the same atom, simultaneously spins, the effects of the collision of the electron and nucleus will vary depending upon whether or not the electron and nucleus are spinning the same or different directions. Electrons and nuclei may spin either up or down, the experiments using polarized beam have been observing the effects that are caused by both the up and down spin.
The experiments in Hall A are dealing with the oxygen atom. This will be the first time any laboratory has ever examined the spin dependent effects in oxygen. The Hall C experiments are using polarized beam in preparation for upcoming experiments which will measure extremely subtle effects of spin. The polarized beam will allow for the measurement of the change in currency, energy and position when an atom is spun back and forth 15 times a second.
"This has been extremely productive for the Laboratory," said Hutton. "Between 60 and 70 percent of all the experiments done at Jefferson Lab need polarized beam-we can now tell our users we are able to give it to them."
Reorgnization Intended to Improve Customer Service
Cost-effective, efficient business practice has always been a goal of Jefferson Lab. The recent consolidation of the Finance and Procurement departments into Business Services is an effort to streamline functions and reduce overhead, allowing the department to function at its highest potential, says Mark Waite, the director of the new department. As of the end of May, Business Services handles accounting, procurement, payroll, travel, and technology transfer services for the Laboratory. The idea for the consolidation came from Elizabeth Lawson, the Administration Division's Quality Assurance Officer. During a routine analysis of the division's operations, cost-effectiveness, and efficiencies, Lawson realized that a consolidation would save money, streamline processes, and eliminate overlap, duplication, and conflict.
Lawson presented her idea to Jim Coleman, former Associate Director for Administration, who saw the merits of the plan. "We saw Procurement and Finance together as very well aligned and compatible by virtue of the fact that they both deal with business transactions of day-to-day life at the Lab," says Coleman. The plan was presented to Director Hermann Grunder and to the Director's Council who quickly approved it for implementation. Waite, former director of Procurement, was then asked to head the effort to reorganize the two departments. "Finance and Procurement already had a close relationship through purchasing and accounts payable," says Waite. "Combining the departments has produced some immediate and tangible benefits for Administration, such as better opportunities to utilize the talents and strengths of personnel, reduced record keeping and record storage costs, improved communications through staff meetings, teaming, and cross training programs, and the ability to serve our customers in a more cost-effective manner." Waite stated that he received many good ideas from the staff that ultimately led to the organization as it is currently set up. "Meta Wilt and Jeff Shapiro from SURA corporate were also very supportive and provided guidance that helped define the new organization,"says Waite.
One of the initial problems the new Department had to overcome was the lack of an accounting manager to complete monthly financial reporting closeout and cost reports. Waite said, "we were very fortunate to have Julie Leverenz on staff. She has risen to the occasion and has successfully gotten us through the last two monthly closings." Another key contributor according to Waite has been Dena Polyhronakis, the Department Administrator. "Dena has been instrumental in our success. She has a keen understanding of our financial processes and management information system, and has been very helpful to me in achieving a smooth transition," says Waite.
Waite also credits the group managers, Ross Small, Danny Lloyd, Maureen Davis, Dick Lusk, and Mary Williamson with the success of the transition. "They have worked together and placed the Department's interests above their own by accommodating the necessary changes in personnel and process to ensure that the new Business Services Department functions as a cohesive unit."
According to Dick Lusk, group manager for the Technology Acquisitions Group in the Business Services Department, the reorganization has allowed customers to experience faster and more efficient processing of purchase and vendor orders. "Combining Finance and Procurement quickly eliminated redundancy and duplication in processes and files which free resources to better accomplish other tasks," says Lusk. Lusk adds that communication will also be enhanced by the new arrangement as "traditional organizational barriers have essentially been eliminated." This reorganization is not the first one to take place within the Administration Division. In 1989, Coleman saw the need to eliminate the Department of Administrative Services, dividing its responsibilities among Human Resources, Finance, and Plant Engineering. "When the issue of reorganizing Finance and Procurement arose, we had a precedent to go on," says Coleman.
Family Picnic: Rain Rain Go Away!
Afternoon showers did not prevent Jefferson Lab staff and their families from attending the Jefferson Lab Family Picnic at the Edgehill Clubhouse in Yorktown on June 14. The picnic was sponsored by the Jefferson Activities Group and had a turnout of 250 people. Participants enjoyed hamburgers, hotdogs, chicken, and pasta salad. Homemade desserts, brought by the picnic goers, were in abundance, and the children (and children at heart) enjoyed flavored snowballs. The pool was open for those who wanted to take a dip, and the game of horse shoes was played by many.
Domingo Day: A distinguished career is marked by a special day
After 10 years of service to Jefferson Lab and a distinguished career in physics, John Domingo was honored on June 9, 1997, by family, friends, and colleagues.
The day began with a reception and a scientific symposium focusing on Domingo's physics career and accomplishments. Guest speakers included Neil Tanner from Oxford University, Bernhard Mecking and Larry Cardman, both of Jefferson Lab. At a ceremony following the scientific symposium, the Lab's three experimental halls were dedicated in Domingo's name. He was praised for the ability to "crunch numbers" that helped save the three experimental hall concept from becoming a two hall reality. Lab Director Hermann Grunder and former SURA President William Wallenmeyer unveiled a plaque bearing Domingo's name and an engraving of the halls.
The luncheon was attended by more than 700 people where colleagues told stories of Domingo's tenure at Jefferson Lab, with Christoph Leemann, Associate Director of the Accelerator Division, saying, "Talking about John without getting in trouble is impossible." Other roasters revealed that, contrary to popular belief, Domingo really does like children and that he has a tendancy for taking apart computers to see "what is going on in there." At the end of the afternoon, Domingo was presented with a newly designed Jefferson Lab poster autographed by the staff.
In true Domingo-style, he thanked the attendees and cheerfully stated, "I don't know why you did all of this...I'm not going anywhere." Domingo works as a senior fellow at the laboratory.
Symposium Highlights Domingo's Accomplishments
The overall objective for Jefferson Lab's experimental halls is to obtain an improved grasp of the concept and processes of nature. On John J. Domingo Day, the Scientific Symposium illustrated how one man has greatly contributed to the fulfillment of this mission.
The Scientific Symposium provided those in attendance with an overview of Domingo's countless accomplishments in the field of physics and his achievement of the goals and objectives of Jefferson Lab. Three speakers-Neil Tanner, Bernhard Mecking, and Larry Cardman-relayed Domingo's physics accomplishments, including the design of the newly named John J. Domingo Experimental Halls. They discussed how he has helped the facility evolve into one of the nation's most successful experimental labs.
To inaugurate the day's events, the audience heard from Neil Tanner, a long time personal and professional colleague of Domingo. Tanner established a time-line of Domingo's accomplishments that started in 1955 when Domingo was appointed a Fulbright traveling scholarship, which took him to Gottingen, Lower Saxonay, Germany. He discussed Domingo as a graduate student at Cal Tech, as well as endeavors at the Swiss Institute for Nuclear Research (currently The Paul Scherrer Institute), CERN (Organisation Europeenne Pour La Recherche Nucleaire) and Bell Labs (currently Lucent Technologies). Following Tanner's recollection of Domingo's major accomplishments, the audience turned their attention to Bernhard Mecking, Hall B leader, as he discussed the design of the experimental halls. He said that Domingo had a major influence in the design and construction of the halls and determined the structure and size of all personnel directly associated with the halls. According to Mecking, Domingo developed the experimental hall's uses and presented reports to the Department of Energy review board that paved the way for federal funding.
Lastly, Cardman established the importance of Domingo's work to the ongoing mission of modern science. He told of the evolvement of ancient scientific premises, such as the forces of nature, to modern day questions about the quark and the gluon. Cardman closed the symposium with a statement of the Lab's goal to use the beam to uncover the mystery of the quark and to establish breakthroughs in the area of Quantum Chromodynamics.
Farewell to Jim Coleman: Associate Director of Administration retires
After 12 years of service to Jefferson Lab, Jim Coleman, has retired as Associate Director of Administration. Coleman was responsible for Procurement, Plant Engineering, Finance, Human Resources, Library, Medical Services, Affirmative Action, Legal, Internal Audit, Security, Property, Telecommunications, and the Residence Facility.
Prior to Coleman's arrival in 1985, the Lab's administration division was non-existent. He led the development and implementation of the current administrative departments and programs, including the recent consolidation of the Procurement and Finance departments into the Business Services department (see related story on pg. 4).
Before Coleman's tenure at the Lab, he worked in the federal government, first with the Energy Research and Development Administration (ERDA) which became the U.S. Department of Energy, and then with the U.S. Office of Personnel Management. In 1980, he joined Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory where he served as Personnel Director, Business Manager, and later, as Chief-of-Staff of the Administration Division. From 1984 to 1985, he was Vice-President of AmeriWest Financial Corporation in Albuquerque.
Summer Science Series
Sitting towards the back of the auditorium was John Domingo, a Senior Fellow at Jefferson Lab. Across the aisle sat Lisa Surles, Science Education Technician. Two seats in front of her was Devin Walker, a undergraduate student from Hampton University. Each of them, along with many others in the audience, listened intuitively and jotted down notes given by the speaker in the front of the auditorium. The event that brought employees of such varying work levels together on an equal level of interest was The Summer Science Series Lectures, particularly Nathan Isgur's talk "Quarks, Gluons, & all that Stuff." As the Theory Group Leader explained the basis of the complex nature of physics and how it relates to experiments at Jefferson Lab, the mood of the room was relaxed and at ease. The attendees sat casually and listened to Isgur, dressed in a pair of khaki shorts and a polo shirt, as though they were listening to an old acquaintance tell a story, laughing at the occasional anecdote.
The Summer Series is a collection of lectures, given by various Jefferson Lab leaders, on the relationship between physics and the mission of the Lab. The talks break down the science to a level anyone can understand, and ran through the month of August.
Changes coming to TIAA-CREF tax exempt status
The U.S. House of Representatives recently approved a legislative proposal that would revoke TIAA-CREF's long-standing tax exemption. A Senate version contains no such proposal.
The differences between the House and Senate versions will be resolved in a conference committee, and TIAA-CREF is hopeful that the exemption will survive. Overall, the revocation of TIAA-CREF's tax exemption would work to a member's disadvantage, since every dollar TIAA-CREF pays in tax is a dollar they can't pay their participants in benefits.
The major effects would be lower dividend rates on TIAA accumulations and reduced rates for TIAA payouts. At this point, the precise impact is not known. TIAA-CREF believes the effect of the loss of this exemption on CREF participants would be minimal, since CREF-as an investment company that apportions all of its net earnings to participants-would probably not have any significant revenue subject to new tax liabilities. Revocation of TIAA-CREF's tax exempt status would not affect the current tax status of members' TIAA-CREF accumulations, Jefferson Lab's plan, or the tax-deferred status of contributions to retirement accounts. For more information, contact TIAA-CREF or visit their web site at www.tiaa-cref.org.
Lab's History Papers Available
Three academic papers representing historian of science Catherine Westfall's formal scholarship on Jefferson Lab history are available to anyone who would like copies:
"The Founding of CEBAF, 1979 to 1987"
"Jefferson Lab's 1985 Switch to Superconducting Technology"
"The Prehistory of Jefferson Lab's SRF Accelerating Cavities, 1962 to 1985"
Also available are copies of her "Thinking Small in Big Science: The Founding of Fermilab, 1960-1972," which appeared last year in the prominent historical journal Technology and Culture. Contact Steve Corneliussen (ext. 7582; corneliussen@JLab.org).
Dr. Westfall bases her work on extensive research in original scientific, technical, and institutional documents and on the numerous formal oral history interviews she conducts. The library has (or can obtain) her other works, which include a book on the history of Los Alamos National Laboratory.
Jefferson Science Associates, LLC, a joint venture of the Southeastern Universities Research Association, Inc. and PAE, manages and operates the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, or Jefferson Lab, for the U.S. Department of Energy's Office of Science.
DOE’s Office of Science is the single largest supporter of basic research in the physical sciences in the United States and is working to address some of the most pressing challenges of our time. For more information, visit https://energy.gov/science.