On Target December 2009

Proton's Party Pals May Alter Its Internal Structure

beryllium nucleus
Visualization of the beryllium nucleus.
Image: Peter Mueller, Argonne National Lab

A recent experiment at Jefferson Lab has found that a proton's nearest neighbors in the nucleus of the atom may modify the proton's internal structure.

When comparing large nuclei to small nuclei, past measurements have shown a clear difference in how the proton's constituent particles, called quarks, are distributed. This difference is called the EMC Effect.

"What we see is that there are fewer high-momentum quarks and more low-momentum quarks. And so, when you bring the nucleons together, something is modifying their quarks somehow," said John Arrington, a spokesperson for the experiment and a nuclear physicist at Argonne National Lab.

Many models of the EMC Effect predict that it is caused by the mass or density of the nucleus in which the proton resides. To test these predictions, experimenters made precise new measurements of the EMC effect in a variety of light nuclei, such as isotopes of helium....... more

SNS Reaches 1 Megawatt With JLab's Superconducting Cavities

1 Megawatt The Department of Energy's Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) is now the first pulsed spallation neutron source to break the one-megawatt barrier.......more


Meziani Takes Lead of Users Group: Eye on 12 GeV Science and Beyond

Meziani Zein-Eddine Meziani, Temple University, became the new chair of Jefferson Lab's Users Group Board of Directors at the end the Annual Users Workshop in June.......more


FEL Gets First Beam Through Ultraviolet Beamline

FEL Jefferson Lab's Free-Electron Laser successfully transported an electron beam through its new ultraviolet beamline for the first time on Oct. 28. The machine is now just months away from emitting its first powerful beams of ultraviolet laser light........more

Below the Fold:

Proton's Party Pals May Alter Its Internal Structure

density dependence model for the EMC effect for beryllium
Size of the EMC Effect vs. average nuclear density. A clear breakdown of the simple density dependence model for the EMC effect for beryllium (9Be) is observed.

A recent experiment at Jefferson Lab has found that a proton's nearest neighbors in the nucleus of the atom may modify the proton's internal structure.

When comparing large nuclei to small nuclei, past measurements have shown a clear difference in how the proton's constituent particles, called quarks, are distributed. This difference is called the EMC Effect.

"What we see is that there are fewer high-momentum quarks and more low-momentum quarks. And so, when you bring the nucleons together, something is modifying their quarks somehow," said John Arrington, a spokesperson for the experiment and a nuclear physicist at Argonne National Lab.

Many models of the EMC Effect predict that it is caused by the mass or density of the nucleus in which the proton resides. To test these predictions, experimenters made precise new measurements of the EMC effect in a variety of light nuclei, such as isotopes of helium.

"What we found is that there is a large modification of the quark structure in helium-4, and there was a much smaller effect in helium-3. And even though they were both light nuclei, they had a very different EMC Effect," explained Arrington.

The results, he added, rules out the idea that the size of the EMC effect scales with the mass of the nucleus.

Next, the experimenters turned their attention to density. They compared the EMC Effect in beryllium to various other nuclei. Beryllium has a mass similar to carbon but a much lower density, roughly the same as helium-3. They found that the size of the EMC Effect in beryllium is similar to that of carbon, which is twice as dense.

"So you have one set of data that tells you the mass-dependence picture doesn’t work and another that tells you the density-dependence picture doesn't work," Arrington explained. “So, if both of these pictures are wrong, what's really going on?"

Interestingly, the result did indicate a possible new cause for the effect: the microscopic structure of nuclei. This possible result is hinged on the unusual structure of beryllium. Most of the time, beryllium’s configuration consists of two orbiting clusters that look like helium-4 nuclei (each with two protons and two neutrons), and one additional neutron orbiting around.

The EMC Effect was first described by the European Muon Collaboration in 1983. The collaboration discovered the effect in experiments conducted at CERN - the European Organization for Nuclear Research.

The orbiting clusters yield a large radius and a low average density for the beryllium nucleus, but most protons and neutrons are contained within the high local densities of the clusters. This suggests that the EMC effect may be entirely generated within these small, high-density clusters.

"That's a hypothesis, but it's certainly clear that it's small groups of nucleons that get together and change things, rather than the whole collection," Arrington said. “In a way, it’s not really surprising. If you’re at a party, it doesn’t matter how many people are in the room, most of the time you’re interacting with the people that you’re closest to.”

Arrington says the next step is to take a new measurement that directly examines the impact of the local density. This can be done by looking at the quark structure of the deuteron, a nucleus consisting of just one proton and one neutron. Most of the time, the proton and neutron are pretty far apart.

"We want to isolate the quark structure during the moment when the proton and neutron are very close together. If we find a large effect in such a small and simple nucleus by looking when the proton and neutron are closest together, it will demonstrate that the EMC effect does not require a large, dense nucleus – it simply requires two nucleons coming into extremely close contact," Arrington explained.

Extremely close nucleons have been studied at Jefferson Lab before. Most recently, measurements of short-range correlations were made in Hall A. But that investigation was carried out in heavier nuclei than the deuteron. Other studies have also been done in Hall B, Hall C, at SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory and Brookhaven National Lab.

The EMC Effect experiment, E03-103, ran for 21 days in Hall C in October of 2004. In the experiment, electrons from the CEBAF Accelerator were sent into the nuclei of hydrogen, helium, beryllium and carbon atoms. Some electrons struck quarks in the target nuclei. The electrons that interacted with the quarks were detected in Hall C's High Momentum Spectrometer, allowing scientists to map out the quark momentum distributions.

This work was supported in part by the DOE, the National Science Foundation and the South African National Research Foundation.

By Kandice Carter
Science writer

Spallation Neutron Source Reaches Megawatt With JLab's Superconducting Cavities

medium ? cryomodule
JLab staff prepares to load the medium β cryomodule onto a flatbed semi for its trip to Oak Ridge National Lab. These photos were taken in the Test Lab in 2002 as this cryomodule was being prepared for delivery to Oak Ridge National Lab.

The Department of Energy's Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) is now the first pulsed spallation neutron source to break the one-megawatt barrier.

"In reaching this milestone of operating power, the Spallation Neutron Source is providing scientists with an unmatched resource for unlocking the secrets of materials at the molecular level," said Dr. William F. Brinkman, Director of DOE's Office of Science. "Advances in the materials sciences are fundamental to the development of clean and sustainable energy technologies."

SNS operators at Oak Ridge National Laboratory pushed the controls past the megawatt mark on Sept. 18 as the SNS ramped up for its latest operational run.

"This is a great achievement not only for DOE and Oak Ridge National Laboratory, but for the entire community of science," said ORNL Director Thom Mason, who led the SNS project during its construction.

Jefferson Lab was part of the team of six DOE national laboratories collaborating on the DOE Office of Science project. The lab was responsible for the superconducting linac and its refrigeration system. The other DOE national laboratories supporting ORNL in the SNS collaboration are Los Alamos, Argonne, Lawrence Berkeley, and Brookhaven. 

medium ? cryomodule
Jeff Saunders, Manny Nevarez, Jeff Campbell and Ken Worland load a Spallation Neutron Source medium β cryomodule for transport to Oak Ridge, while on the floor Brian Hannah watches and Frank Humphry manages the overhead crane. Saunders and Hannah are SNS employees from Oak Ridge. Nevarez, Campbell, Worland and Humphry are Jefferson Lab staff.

Claus Rode was the senior team leader for the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) project at Jefferson Lab. He says he's delighted to see that the machine has already reached the 1 MW milestone. "Not only that, but the machine appears to be very reliable at the 1 MW scale," Rode said. "This is a testament to the fine work completed here at Jefferson Lab, as well as by the other collaborators."

Some members of the Jefferson Lab staff learned of the accomplishment from a message sent by Stuart Henderson, director of the research accelerator division. He sent the message to SNS Accelerator Advisory Committee Members. "The SNS staff are very excited and proud of this accomplishment. I hope you share this sense of pride and accomplishment, as your advice over the last few years has been invaluable to us as we confronted the myriad challenges on the path to 1 MW."

Before the SNS, the world's spallation neutron sources operated in the hundred-kilowatt range. The SNS actually became a world-record holder in August 2007 when it reached 160 kilowatts, earning it an entry in the Guinness Book of World Records as the world's most powerful pulsed spallation neutron source.

Beam power isn't merely a numbers game. A more powerful beam means more neutrons are spalled from SNS's mercury target. For the researcher, the difference in beam intensity is comparable to the ability to see with a car's headlights versus a flashlight. More neutrons also enhance scientific opportunities, including flexibility for smaller samples and for real-time studies at shorter time scales. For example, experiments will be possible that use just one pulse of neutrons to illuminate the dynamics of scientific processes.

Eventually, the SNS will reach its design power of 1.4 megawatts. The gradual increase of beam power has been an ongoing process since the SNS was completed and activated in late April 2006.

Rode said Jefferson Lab staffers are looking forward to completing future work for the SNS, including an eventual upgrade of the JLab-built SRF linac. "We will help construct nine more high-β cryomodules for the Spallation Neutron Source in the future," he said.

In the meantime, scientists have been performing cutting-edge experiments and materials analysis as its eventual suite of 25 instruments comes online. As DOE Office of Science user facilities, the SNS and its companion facility, the High Flux Isotope Reactor, host researchers from around the world for neutron scattering experiments.

Meziani Takes Lead of JLab Users Group:
Eye on 12 GeV Science and Beyond

Zein-Eddine Meziani
Zein-Eddine Meziani, Temple University Department of Physics professor, is the new chair of Jefferson Lab's Users Group Board of Directors.

Zein-Eddine Meziani, Temple University, became the new chair of Jefferson Lab's Users Group Board of Directors at the end the Annual Users Workshop in June.

One of his first duties was to schedule the next Users Meeting, which has been set for June 7-9, 2010.

That done, Meziani considers this a special time to be on the JLab Users Group Board of Directors. "On one hand all the hard work of getting the 12 GeV Upgrade to CD-3 is behind us. But, now we need to seriously look at the science that could be done at Jefferson Lab after 12 GeV," he points out. "How do we see the future of the lab beyond 12 GeV? What could JLab offer? These are intriguing questions."

"This is a unique opportunity to organize working groups and go through a series of workshops and (by the June meeting) assess the physics that could be achieved perhaps with a collider that could be built at JLab," he adds. 

And while some may think it's early to begin work on a machine beyond 12 GeV, Meziani politely disagrees. He feels the best way to ensure a future beyond the 12 GeV Upgrade is to begin planning for it now. "Take 12 GeV as an example. I remember (then JLab's Chief Scientist) Nathan Isgur in 1994 at a long-range planning meeting held at Argonne. He was already starting to talk about 12 GeV; we barely had first beam with CEBAF," Meziani recalls.

"It isn't premature to start planning for the future at this time. There has to be an assessment of the possible impacts of 12 GeV science, where it will take us, what will be missing and what JLab could offer – possibly with a collider."

Meziani sees planning beyond the 12 GeV upgrade as his biggest challenge and is already mustering the users' community to action on assessing the science, formulating a plan to achieve the best science goals, working with JLab leadership on a future plan and articulating these goals and plan to the larger physics community.

"This is the biggest challenge I have. I'm thinking in terms of how to organize the work that must be done within the users' community. If we don't act fast enough we could miss the opportunity. This work is important, critical even, and must be a priority in addition to dealing with the day-to-day Users Group functions."

Another area Meziani would like delve into is getting JLab users and scientific community more visibility at conferences and workshops outside of the nuclear physics realm. He is particularly interested in developing a higher level of representation within physics organizations based both in the U.S. and abroad.

"We need to be out there representing our community in the larger physics community," he explains. "Raising our visibility helps us better share our scientific results, attracts new users and increases interest in current and future science programs."

FEL Gets First Beam Through Ultraviolet Beamline

Free-Electron Laser
The Free-Electron Laser ultraviolet beamline, with prominent red and green magnets, juts out to the right. On the left, the infrared beamline also extends nearly the length of the room.

Jefferson Lab's Free-Electron Laser successfully transported an electron beam through its new ultraviolet beamline for the first time on Oct. 28. The machine is now just months away from emitting its first powerful beams of ultraviolet laser light.

"This is a major milestone in the progress of the Jefferson Lab FEL," said George Neil, associate director of the FEL Division.

The JLab FEL is already the most powerful tunable laser in the infrared and is also a powerful source of terahertz light. This new success caps a three-year effort to add ultraviolet capability to the FEL.

"After three years of assembly, installation and checkout, it took less than two hours to successfully send beam through the ultraviolet beamline," said Neil. "This sets the stage for lasing in the ultraviolet next spring after installation of the optical systems and wiggler chamber and diagnostics."

In the FEL, electrons are stripped from their atoms and whipped up to high energies by a linear accelerator. The accelerated electrons are then sent into the ultraviolet beamline, where they encounter the UV wiggler. A wiggler is a device that uses magnetic fields to shake the electrons, forcing them to release some of their energy in the form of photons. As in a conventional laser, the photons bounce between two mirrors in the optical system and are then emitted as a coherent beam of light.

Once the full upgrade is complete, the FEL will be capable of delivering ultraviolet laser light at a wavelength of 300 nanometers with kilowatts of power. Due to its tunability, the FEL will also be capable of providing watts of laser light at other ultraviolet wavelengths.

The Free-Electron Laser program is supported in part by the Department of Defense's Office of Naval Research, the Air Force Research Laboratory and the Joint Technology Office, the Department of Energy's Basic Energy Sciences, and the Commonwealth of Virginia. The UV upgrade was made possible with funding from the Air Force Research Laboratory.

The FEL transported its first electron beam through the ultraviolet beamline at 6:40 p.m. on Oct. 28.

Cryo Group: Good Neighbor Returns the Favor

failed turbine
Jefferson Lab cryo group members begin the process of pulling out the failed turbine so they can install the Fermilab unit.

It's been said that "what comes around, goes around," and with Jefferson Lab's Cryogenics Group, it's true. In August, Jefferson Lab asked Fermilab to borrow a backup turbine for its End Station Refrigerator. Jefferson Lab's primary turbine was in Europe for normal wear-and-tear repair, overhaul and design modification, and its spare turbine had just failed. Fermilab graciously packed up its spare and sent it, allowing JLab experiments to continue with minor interruption. An article on the borrowed turbine was printed in the October issue of symmetry. Story link.

Since then, JLab's primary and spare turbine cartridges both have been repaired and returned to the lab. The primary turbine was installed successfully and is functioning very well, according to Dana Arenius, JLab's cryogenics group leader. 

Jefferson Lab has already shipped the borrowed turbine back to Fermilab, and the cryogenics staff was delighted to be able to make good on the favor owed to Fermilab. It turns out that the turbine failed due to the limitation of an internal part that neither lab was aware of.

spare turbine
Fermilab's spare turbine before temporarily being installed in JLab's End Station Refrigerator.

"The cartridges have a critical internal sealing o-ring between the cold helium circuit and cooling water (which was unknown to the end users)," noted Arenius. "This o-ring has a shelf life of approximately 10 years, and the turbine must be reworked by the manufacturer even if the turbine is not used."

So when JLab returned Fermilab's loaned turbine, they followed it up with critical information that could prevent the same unexpected failure in Fermilab's own cryogenic systems. 

"We shared this new vendor information with Fermilab, since their turbines are of the same vintage," Arenius added.

Good neighbors, indeed.


Delayen Named First Director of ODU Center for Accelerator Science

Jean R. Delayen
Jean R. Delayen has been named the first director of Old Dominion University's Center for Accelerator Science.

Jean R. Delayen, a principal scientist in the Accelerator Division at Jefferson Lab and a professor of accelerator physics at Old Dominion University, has been named the first director of the Center for Accelerator Science, which was created in 2008 by ODU and Jefferson Lab.

The appointment was announced Nov. 10, after a yearlong search that attracted an international array of candidates. Delayen joined JLab in 1995 and in 2006 became a Jefferson Lab Professor at ODU with part-time teaching duties. Prior to coming to Virginia, Delayen worked as a scientist at California Institute of Technology and Argonne National Laboratory. Interspersed with his work in the U.S., he has also been a visiting researcher and teacher at laboratories and universities in China, Taiwan, Japan, Australia, India, Israel and England.

Delayen serves on a number of international advisory and review committees for accelerator facilities and is a regular teacher at the U.S. Particle Accelerator School. He is the inventor of several types of accelerating cavities that are being used worldwide.

"Jean's intimate contact with the technology is a major plus for an Accelerator Center director. His involvement promises to be much more than a narrow academic interest," said Jefferson Lab Director Hugh Montgomery.

ODU and Jefferson Lab have been collaborating for nearly a decade in training accelerator scientists. Currently, 10 students are pursuing advanced degrees at ODU and working on projects at Jefferson Lab. The Center for Accelerator Science – with seven faculty members and 15 graduate students as its target complement – is envisioned as a springboard for innovations.

In addition to probing the nature of matter, particle accelerators are being used in diverse and rapidly growing fields. Radiation treatment and radiation imaging instruments use accelerator technology. According to the Department of Energy, about 10,000 patients are treated every day in the U.S. with electron beams from linear accelerators.

Much of the center's focus will be on the linear accelerator format and superconducting radiofrequency particle-acceleration technology that is used by Jefferson Lab's Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility and its Free-Electron Laser.

Editor's note: This story is based on the Nov. 10 Old Dominion University news release at: http://www.odu.edu/ao/news/media.php?todo=details&id=18908 .

JLab Achieves Significant Safety Milestone

Meaningful change in the work environment takes time. Focus, two-way communication and the belief that individual contributions matter all help to bring about gradual improvements. The goal for many of these change efforts is that they eventually become a part of the daily work life, and help Jefferson Lab pull away from its peers in performance.

JLab has a goal that fits this description: "zero injuries" resulting in lost work time, restriction or transfer. The laboratory completed 14 consecutive months without such an incident. This is an impressive accomplishment for a few reasons:

  • The first is that Jefferson Lab has more than 720 employees, as well as a large number of users and subcontractors. Planning and work execution need to be well thought out, understood, communicated and carried out – for every job.
  • Second, the number of reported medical events increased more than 400 percent in the past year, from 10 reported cases in FY08 (fiscal year) to 41 in FY09. The majority of these were first aid cases, however the end result is that the lab can review the data for trends and proactively address issues before they cause an injury beyond first aid.
  • Finally, JLab is only the second Office of Science laboratory to complete an entire fiscal year without an injury requiring lost work time, restriction or transfer. To put this in perspective, there are 10 Office of Science laboratories, and safety measurements of this type began in October 2000 – nine years ago.

Mary Logue, Jefferson Lab's Associate Director for Environment, Safety, Health and Quality, had this to say regarding JLab's accomplishment: "Maintaining a safe work environment is demonstrably a priority here. Continuing this stellar performance will require us to maintain our vigilance on each and every task, no matter which department you're working in – it's the JLab way."

Recently a voltage regulator overheated, sending a plastic shard into a worker's eye while he was testing a circuit board in a pre-fabricated test fixture. He required a day off for recovery. He was following prescribed safety requirements. The event was caused by an equipment malfunction. The 15-volt regulator was protected by a fuse, designed to fail in the event of overheating. The fuse did not fail as designed, which caused the regulator to overheat and burst.

Following an investigation, ESH&Q reminded both workers and supervisors of the importance of regularly reviewing the need for and use of personal protective equipment, particularly for skill-of-the-craft tasks.

By Stephen Smith
Lead Quality and Safety Engineer

Editor's note: More about JLab's ES&H Integrated Safety Management program is available on the ESH&Q tab, accessible from the Insight page: https://misportal.jlab.org/InsightWebProject/appmanager/Insight/InsightDesktop?_nfpb=true&_pageLabel=ESHQ_page .

Status highlights and recent updates to JLab's Integrated Safety Management program can be found in the JLab Safety Snapshot
column on the right side of the Insight Front Page tab: https://misportal.jlab.org/InsightWebProject/appmanager/Insight/InsightDesktop?_nfpb=true&_pageLabel=FrontPage_page .

JLab Begins Implementing New Energy Conservation Policy

Bill Mooney
Bill Mooney, JLab's new Energy manager.

Over the years, Jefferson Lab has strived to be a good steward of the resources it uses. Energy and water conservation, waste management and sustainability initiatives are top priorities for all federal agencies, and especially the Department of Energy laboratory network. JLab is responsible for compliance with a variety of legislation, Department of Energy Orders and directives, all of which include challenging goals to improve energy efficiency, reduce consumption, and, to be addressed soon, reduction of greenhouse gas emissions.

In consideration of these responsibilities, the laboratory recently approved and published an Energy Conservation Policy. The new policy is designed to provide a safe, productive and energy efficient workplace for all JLab staff and visitors.

Heating, Ventilating and Air Conditioning (HVAC) systems consume a significant amount (30 -40 percent) of "controllable" energy in all buildings. The new energy policy defines target heating and cooling space temperature levels, the operating schedule for HVAC systems and other energy conservation measures.

"Maintaining consistent operating schedules of HVAC systems, and space temperature settings in our buildings is a major element of the new policy," according to Energy Manager, Bill Mooney. He joined the laboratory staff earlier this year with responsibilities that include the implementation of the lab’s new policy. He also has duties related to the achievement of JLab's ongoing energy efficiency improvement goals, and compliance with DOE and other agency efficiency requirements through development of energy reduction and sustainability strategies and programs. Mooney is certified by the U.S. Green Building Council as a LEED (Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design) Accredited Professional and is a Certified Energy Manager by the Association of Energy Engineers.

Another growing contributor to energy consumption in all buildings involves "plug loads," including electronic office equipment and personal convenience appliances. The new Energy Conservation Policy addresses plug-load reduction by prohibiting independent personal appliance use. Specifically, portable heaters, personal refrigerators, fans and microwave ovens are prohibited. Please review a copy of the policy (access instructions below) for details on this subject, and instructions regarding special circumstances.

During the past several years, JLab has invested in energy-efficient equipment, technology and practices, and the lab has achieved significant progress towards meeting and exceeding many of its energy efficiency objectives. Further, all new construction and major renovation projects include a very high level of energy-efficiency design and technology (LEED Gold certification), according to JLab's new energy manager.

The DOE is very proactive regarding energy and sustainability issues, and continues to challenge all laboratories to innovate and implement a range of strategies from basic programmable thermostats to alternative energy sources. JLab's future progress with improving energy efficiency relies on both the lab’s continued commitment to investment in efficient technology applications and everyone's cooperation with the Energy Conservation Policy, he notes.

What to do? Please take a few minutes to review and follow the new policy instructions, and assure that thermostats in your respective areas are set to the policy standards (68 -70 degrees Fahrenheit in the heating season, and 74-76 degrees F in the cooling season), he says.

The Jefferson Lab Energy Conservation Policy is available on the Facilities Management webpage: http://www.jlab.org/fm/energymanagement/.

Questions regarding the Energy Conservation Policy, and especially ideas or suggestions for energy, water and waste conservation,
may be directed to Bill Mooney at ext. 5461 or via e-mail: mooney@jlab.org.

Working Clean & Green: Rainey Leads Lab Environmental Group

Bill Rainey
Bill Rainey, JLab's Environmental Program manager

Bill Rainey, Jefferson Lab's Environmental Program manager, was born on Long Island, N.Y., but moved to the beautiful Adirondack Mountains as a youngster. According to Rainey, it was the perfect place to begin a career based on caring for the environment.

Throughout school, biology was the one subject that attracted him, and by the time he graduated from the State University of New York at Syracuse in 1987 with a degree in Environmental Biology, he found himself in the midst of a national movement.

"It was the perfect time to have this degree," he recalled. "There was a push for national clean-up efforts, and new regulations coming into practice. It was a great time to be getting into the business."

His first job out of school was with a trout hatchery at the edge of Lake Champlain on the Vermont border. For a young man starting out, it was idyllic: the county gave him a house and a pick-up truck and all the magnificent scenery he could take in. There, he was responsible for all aspects of the hatchery, including budgeting, staff, and interfacing with local, state and federal officials, the latter a skill that would come in handy throughout his career.

From there he went on to work as the environmental manager for a company that developed and operated hydroelectric plants. He was responsible for obtaining and assuring compliance with construction and operating permits, interfacing with environmental regulators and the public, and received intensive on-the-job training in project management.

Two years later, he was off to Idaho to become a project manager for environmental cleanup activities at the Idaho National Engineering Lab, a Department of Energy nuclear fuel processing and research complex. While there, Rainey decided it was time to continue his education. He earned a master's degree in Hazardous Waste Management in 1994 from Idaho State University.

From there, it was back to the East Coast for a temporary assignment at DOE headquarters in Germantown, Md., where he worked on waste management projects, and then joined a small consulting firm in Washington, D.C.

Over the 11 years he was there, the company grew from a staff of six to 200. Rainey rose to the position of vice president for the Environmental Services and Facilities Division, and worked with federal clients that included the Department of Defense, NASA, the Department of Homeland Security, the IRS and others.

He and his wife, Jennifer, who's a chemical engineer for the Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Lab and works at the Norfolk Naval Station, had vacationed in Virginia Beach and loved it so much that they bought a condo there. As his job took him away from home more and more, they began to explore opportunities in Hampton Roads, and when he heard about work at Jefferson Lab, he jumped at the chance. He arrived in 2007 as a contractor and spent his first year here supporting Chief Operating Officer Mike Dallas in preparations for a month-long June 2008 DOE inspection to assess the lab's ESH&Q program (environment, safety, health and quality). When that review was over – the lab received a high score. Rainey was scheduled to leave but was thrilled when a permanent position opened up. He came to his current position in September 2008, where he is part of the lab's environmental group.

"Our overall goal is to support the lab's scientific mission and minimize negative environmental impacts," Rainey explains. "We work closely with facilities management, and have an active hazardous waste management program. There's an almost constant stream of submittals to various regulatory bodies and we always are anticipating what new requirements might be coming."

Rainey is currently part of the committee reviewing the lab's Environmental Management System processes and procedures. The committee includes staff from across the lab.

"One of our major initiatives is to reach out labwide, so everyone not only understands what we do and why we do it, but also so they can let us know what they're doing in their own areas," he says. "There's a lot of good decision-making that goes on here, and a lot of people with really good ideas about environmental impacts and saving money, but we don't always know about them. We'd like to set up a way to enhance communication throughout the lab so many of these ideas could be more easily shared."

Rainey lives at the oceanfront in the condo that was once only for vacations. He and Jennifer enjoy the outdoors, still making several annual trips "out West" to snow ski. He's learning to surf and training for yet another triathlon in his eight-year pursuit of a great time swimming, biking and running.

"All of the people at the lab have been incredibly friendly and cooperative," he says. "I think they really understand the importance of what ESH&Q does and why it's so important. I came here thinking I'd be around for a year and then be off. The wonderful people here changed my mind about that."

By Judi Tull
Feature writer

Dec. 9 & 10: Science Series & Education Workshop Events

Eric Mazur
Eric Mazur is the Balkanski Professor of Physics and Applied Physics at Harvard University. He will discuss How the Mind Tricks Us: Visualizations and Visual Illusions during a Science Series lecture at 7 p.m. Dec. 9. Then at 3 p.m. Dec. 10, he will give a special workshop and open forum titled: Confessions of a Converted Lecturer.

Jefferson Lab will host an illuminating and educational presentation on Wednesday, Dec. 9, titled How the Mind Tricks Us: Visualizations and Visual Illusions with Dr. Eric Mazur from Harvard University.

Mazur is the Balkanski Professor of Physics and Applied Physics at Harvard. He is an internationally recognized scientist and researcher, leading a vigorous research program in optical physics and one of the largest research groups in the Harvard Physics Department.

Neurobiology and cognitive psychology have made great progress in understanding how the mind processes information, in particular visual information, according to Mazur. He says the knowledge we can gain from these fields has important implications for the presentation of visual information and student learning.

The Dec. 9 lecture will start at 7 p.m., last about an hour and include a question-and-answer period at the end. It will take place in Jefferson Lab's CEBAF Center auditorium, located at 12000 Jefferson Ave., Newport News. It is free and open to anyone interested in learning more about science.

For security purposes, enter at Jefferson Lab's main entrance (Onnes Drive.). Everyone over 16 is asked to carry a valid photo ID. Security guards may perform ID, parcel and vehicle checks. For directions and information about other Jefferson Lab public lectures, visit http://education.jlab.org/scienceseries/index.php, or contact Christine Wheeler, email wheelerc@jlab.org or call 757-269-7560.

Webpage with his talk, Visualizations and Visual Illusions: How the Mind Tricks Us: http://www.cfa.harvard.edu/smg/mazur/ .

Interactive Simulations from University of Colorado teachers based on Mazur's talk:
http://phet.colorado.edu/teacher_ideas/view-contribution.php?contribution_id=577 .

In addition to the Science Series lecture that Prof. Mazur is presenting on Dec. 9, he is also giving a special workshop and open forum in the CEBAF Center auditorium on Thursday, Dec. 10 from 3-5 p.m. titled: Confessions of a Converted Lecturer.

In describing the workshop, Mazur says, "I thought I was a good teacher until I discovered my students were just memorizing information rather than learning to understand the material. Who was to blame? The students? The material? I will explain how I came to the agonizing conclusion that the culprit was neither of these. It was my teaching that caused the students to fail! I will show how I have adjusted my approach to teaching and how it has improved my students' performance significantly."

The event is free and open to anyone interested in learning more about science or education. For security purposes, enter at Jefferson Lab's main entrance (Onnes Drive.). Everyone over 16 is asked to carry a valid photo ID. Security guards may perform ID, parcel and vehicle checks.

Abstracts of other talks give by Eric Mazur: http://mazur-www.harvard.edu/abstracts/ .

Biographical information on Dr. Eric Mazur: http://mazur-www.harvard.edu/emdetails.php .

Augustine Honored with SURA 'Friend of Science' Award

SURA presented its 2009 Distinguished Friend of Science award to Norman R. Augustine on Oct. 20 in Washington, D.C. After the award presentation (left to right) Hugh Montgomery, Jefferson Lab director & JSA president; Jerry P. Draayer, SURA president & CEO; Charles W. Steger, SURA executive committee chair & Virginia Tech president; Augustine; and Jim Siedow, SURA Board of Trustees chair & vice provost for research, Duke University, pause for a photo.

The Southeastern Universities Research Association recently announced that Norman R. Augustine was the SURA Distinguished Friend of Science Award for 2009. Augustine received the award and a $20,000 honorarium at a reception held Oct. 20 in conjunction with the SURA Board of Trustees Fall Meeting in Washington, DC.

The award recognizes an individual whose extraordinary efforts "fulfill the SURA mission of strengthening the scientific and technical capabilities of the Southeast and nation…. Norm Augustine has been a long-time advocate for American leadership in research and innovation," said Charles W. Steger, president of Virginia Tech and chair of the SURA Council of Presidents and Executive Committee.

"As the chair of the group that produced the tide-turning 'Rising Above the Gathering Storm' report, his impact on the policy debate for research funding helped move this agenda. SURA and the research community are indebted to Mr. Augustine for his forceful advocacy."

Norman R. Augustine is the retired chairman and CEO of Lockheed Martin. He's a former undersecretary of the Army, chairman of the American Red Cross, president of the Boy Scouts of America and holder of 23 honorary degrees. Augustine serves as a regent of the University System of Maryland, trustee emeritus of Johns Hopkins and is a former member of the Board of Trustees of Princeton and MIT. Most notable for SURA’s interests, he is a national proponent for innovation and technology leadership, and chaired the National Academies panel that released "Rising Above the Gathering Storm", a study requested by Congress. That October 2005 report's legacy resulted in bipartisan commitment to achieve a doubling of federal physical sciences research funding.

"Anyone familiar with the challenges we face maintaining our nation’s research leadership role should appreciate the tremendous contributions of Norm Augustine," said Jerry P. Draayer, SURA president and CEO. "Before the Gathering Storm’s release, and since, he's been a strong proponent of its findings and an activist in support of enhanced funding for research."

User, Author T. Petkovi? Presents Book to Library

Tomislav Petkovi?
Tomislav Petkovi?, JLab user and an electrical engineering and computing faculty member with the Department of Applied Physics at the University of Zagreb, Croatia, presented a copy of the "Theory of Relativity and Philosophy" to Elois Morgan, JLab Information Resources manager on Oct. 12.

During his recent stay at Jefferson, Lab Tomislav Petkovi? presented the library with a newly published book of essays titled "Theory of Relativity and Philosophy." Petkovi?, a Jefferson Lab user and an electrical engineering and computing faculty member with the Department of Applied Physics at the University of Zagreb, edited the book and wrote its dedication and introduction.

He describes the book as a philosophical Croatian tribute to Einstein’s legacy that brings new insights and interpretations to the interrelations of the theory of relativity and philosophy. The essays in the book, written by experts in physics, philosophy, religion, science, arts and the humanities, have been published in four languages (Croatian, English, Italian and German).

The book of essays arose after an interdisciplinary symposium held on the island of Cres in Croatia during 2005 to commemorate the 100th anniversary of Einstein's special theory of relativity.

The scientist says the book is a bridge between physics and philosophy and brings insight to Einstein's model of thinking for the current development of cross-disciplinary science and technology.  Einstein' views on the world and science in it (dubbed "Weltanschauung") are inspiring for today, according to Petkovi?.

He notes that the opening essay is a very interesting paper of potential interest to American readers, titled "Reflections on Light and Time in the Philosophy of Franciscus Patricius and in the 1905 Paper of Albert Einstein 'The Electrodynamics of Moving Bodies'" by Eugene E. Ryan (1926 - 2006), a distinguished American philosopher and researcher of Greek, Renaissance, Italian and Croatian philosophy. Ryan spent most of his life and career at East Carolina University at Greenville, N.C., where he was a dean and a professor of classical philosophy.

The Hall C user, who was at JLab over the summer and fall to assist with installation and the production run for Experiment E05-115, dedicated the book in honor of JLab's 25th anniversary. The book was recently published by the Croatian Philosophical Society, Zagreb, Croatia.

Petkovi?, part of the HKS-HES group, worked 19 shifts during the Hypernuclear Experiment's run, which ended in late October. Petkovi? was at JLab for Experiment E01-011, High Resolution Kaon Spectroscopy, the predecessor to E05-115.  When he wasn't working installation or shifts for the Hypernuclear Experiment, he spent much of his spare time in the Library.

For more about the experiment, please visit: E05-115: Spectroscopic investigation of Λ hypernuclei in the wide mass region using the (e,e'K+) reaction.

INFN-Italy, JLab Sign MOU to Facilitate Collaboration, Research

Representatives of Jefferson Lab and the Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN-Italy)
Representatives of Jefferson Lab and the Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN-Italy) signed a Memorandum of Understanding on Nov. 19. The MOU covers the involvement of Italian Institutions in the experimental program at JLab, especially Hall A and B, as well as the theoretical program. The MOU defines the scope of the Italian involvement and their contributions, as well as the support JLab provides to the scientists when coming to JLab.
Attending the document signing are: front row, left to right: Patrizia Rossi (INFN Frascati) and JLab Director Hugh Montgomery; back row, l. to r.: Kees de Jager (JLab), Enzo DeSanctis (INFN - Frascati), Marco Ripani (INFN - Genova), Carlo Schaerf (INFN - Roma, "Tor Vergata"), Annalisa d'Angelo (INFN - Roma, "Tor Vergata"), Marco Battaglieri (INFN - Genova), Marco Contalbrigo (INFN - Ferrara), Volker Burkert (JLab) and David Richards (JLab).

DOE's Brinkman Visits JLab - (Slideshow)

Dr. William F. Brinkman
Dr. William F. Brinkman, director of the Department of Energy's Office of Science, made his first visit to Jefferson Lab on Oct. 28. He met with lab leadership, a group of young scientists from across the lab and teachers who participate in a teacher enrichment program at the lab. He received briefings on the lab's 6 GeV and 12 GeV nuclear physics research programs, the 12 GeV Upgrade, future science possibilities and the Free-Electron Laser program. He also toured the Test Lab, Machine Control Center, Accelerator, Hall A and Hall B, and the FEL.

Milestones: Late September through Mid-November 2009

David Anderson, Hall B Mechanical Technician, Physics Division
David Galinski, Electro/Mechanical Student Intern, Physics Division
Jianhui Gu, Data Acquisitions Scientist, Physics Division
Adam Hartberger, Radiation Control Technician, Environment, Safety, Health & Quality Division
Casey Heck, Hall D Mechanical Technician, Physics Division
Christopher Hewitt, Software Developer, Information Technology Division
James Graves, CLAS Wire Chamber Technician, Physics Division
George Kharashivili, Post Doctoral Fellow in Health Physics, Environment, Safety, Health & Quality Division
Troy Mattox, Computer Support Technician, Information Technology Division
Pawel Nadel-Turnonski, Nathan Isgur Post Doctoral Fellow, Physics Division
Alexey Prokudin, Post Doctoral Fellow, Theory & Computational Physics
Howard Smith, Hall A Electronics Technician, Physics Division
Patricia Solvignon, Experimental Hall C Physicist, Physics Division
Joshua Spradlin, SRF Development & Analysis Associate, Accelerator Division
Melissa Stokes, Administrative Assistant, Environment, Safety, Health & Quality Division

Tony Thomas, Chief Scientist and Associate Director for Theoretical and Computational Physics

Sandra Graham celebrates her five-year anniversary with Eurest Dining's Quark Cafe on Dec. 10. Congratulations Sandra!

These Milestone entries, listed alphabetically, are full-time, term, casual and student actions posted by Human Resources from late September through mid-November 2009.

Jefferson Lab is currently seeking a several qualified individuals for a range of engineering positions. More than 30 JLab career opportunities are posted at: https://careers.peopleclick.com/careerscp/client_jeffersonlab/external/search.do
For more information about employment at JLab, visit: http://www.jlab.org/div_dept/admin/HR/index.html .

JLab Careers are also posted under the Popular Applications listing on JLab's internal Insight page.JLab Careers are also posted
under the Popular Applications listing on JLab's internal Insight page.

The On Target newsletter is published monthly by the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (Jefferson Lab), a nuclear physics research laboratory in Newport News, Virginia, operated by Jefferson Science Associates, LLC, for the U.S. Department of Energy's Office of Science. Possible news items and ideas for future stories may be emailed to jlabinfo@jlab.org, or sent to the Jefferson Lab Public Affairs Office, Suite 15, 12000 Jefferson Avenue, Newport News, VA 23606


Jefferson Science Associates, LLC, manages and operates the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, or Jefferson Lab, for the U.S. Department of Energy's Office of Science. JSA is a wholly owned subsidiary of the Southeastern Universities Research Association, Inc. (SURA).

DOE’s Office of Science is the single largest supporter of basic research in the physical sciences in the United States and is working to address some of the most pressing challenges of our time. For more information, visit https://energy.gov/science